Welcome to the new website of Goa University Botany department seminar. This site is exclusively dedicated to weekly seminars and associated material. Abstracts sent to me on my yahoo mail would also be displayed here. Enjoy yourself!

Wednesday, January 18, 2006

Friday, Jan. 20, Seminar Abstract by Ms. Trupti Vernekar, M.Sc. Part I, Engineering root exudation....

Title: Engineering Root Exudation of Lotus toward the production of Two Novel Carbon Compounds Leads to the Selection ofDistinct Microbial Populations in the Rhizosphere Authors: P. M. Oger, H. Mansouri, X. Nesme and Y. Dessaux
Journal: Microbial Ecology; Vol.47; No.1; January 2004; Pgs: 98-103
Time: 12.00
Venue: Botany department
Speaker: Trupti Verenkar
The culture of opine-producing transgenic Lotus plants induces the increase in the rhizosphere of bacterial communities that are able to utilize these molecules as sole carbon source. We used transgenic Lotus plants producing two opines, namely mannopine and nopaline, to characterize the microbial communities directly influenced by the modification of root exudation. We showed that opine-utilizers represent a large community in the rhizosphere of opine-producing transgenic Lotus. This community is composed of at least 12 different bacterial species, one third of which are able to utilize the opine mannopine and two thirds the opine nopaline. Opine utilizers are diverse, belonging to the Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. We described two novel mannopine-utilizing species, Rhizobium and Duganella spp., and five novel nopaline-utilizing species, Duganella, Afipia, Phyllobacterium, Arthrobacter, and Bosea spp. Although opine utilizers mostly belong to the -Proteobacteria, Rhizobiaceae family, there is little overlap between the populations able to utilize each of the two opines produced by the plants. Noticeably, in the rhizosphere of transgenic Lotus, only the opine mannopine favors the growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the bacterium from which opines have been characterized. The diversity of opine utilizers from the rhizosphere of Lotus plants is greater than that observed from any other environment. Therefore, transgenic plants with engineered exudation constitute an excellent tool to isolate and characterize specific microbial populations.

Friday, Jan. 20, Seminar abstract by Ms. Amisha Shirodker, M.Sc. Part II, Identification of genes fro lignin peroxidases in ectomycorrhizal fungi

Identification of genes for lignin peroxidases and manganese peroxidases in ectomycorrhizal fungi.
Authors:David M. Chen,Andrew F. S. Taylor,Ron M. Burke and John W.G.Cairney Journal:New Phytologist
• Genes for ligninolytic enzymes, normally associated with white-rot fungi, are shown to be widespread in a broad taxonomic range of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi.
• ECM fungi were screened for lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes by PCR using primers specific for known isozymes in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium , with DNA sequencing used to confirm the identity of the amplified fragments.
• Genes for LiPs were detected in ECM fungi representing the orders Agaricales, Aphyllophorales, Boletales, Cantharellales, Hymenochaetales, Sclerodermatales, Stereales and Thelephorales. MnP genes were detected in only Cortinarius rotundisporus and three ECM Stereales taxa.
• The presence of genes for decomposer activities supports putative evolutionary relationships between ECM and saprotrophic fungi. _Expression of the lignolytic genes may facilitate ECM fungal access to nutrients associated with dead plant material in soil and potentially a supplementary carbon supply. Strict functional boundaries between ECM and decomposer fungi may be less clear-cut than previously thought.

Froday, Jan.20, Seminar abstract by Ms. Saritakumari Yadav, M.Sc. Part II, Purification and characterization of a lipase....

TOPIC:Purification and characterization of a regiospecific lipase from Aspergillus terreus
JOURNAL: Biotechnology of Applied Biochemistry
PRESENTER: Sarita K.Yadav
VENUE: Botany Department
DATE: 20.01.2006
Aspergillus terreus lipase was purified to homogeneity with 18.0% yield. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 20.80 to 250 U/mg of protein. Ion exchange on Q-Sepharose was highly effective in the purification process. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 41+ or - kDa as determined by SDS/PAGE. The purified lipase showed excellent temperature tolerance (15–90 °C) and was highly thermostable, retaining 100% activity at 60 °C for 24 h. It showed good pH tolerance (3.0–12.0) and was stable over a pH range of 4.0–10.0 for 24 h. The activity of the enzyme was inhibited by ionic detergents, whereas non-ionic detergents stimulated enzyme activity. Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions stimulated lipase activity, whereas Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Fe3+ ions caused inhibition. The enzyme was unaffected by the metal chelator EDTA or by 2-mercaptoethanol and potassium ferrocyanide. At a concentration of 100 µM, 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin caused weak inhibition with 40% loss of activity, but diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate at the same concentration strongly inhibited enzyme activity (98.12% loss of activity), confirming that the A. terreus lipase is a serine hydrolase. The lipase was highly active on pig fat (151% relative activity) and groundnut oil (103% relative activity) and least active on kusum oil (18% relative activity). Extensive dialysis did not affect enzyme activity up to 168 h, suggesting the absence of any dialysable cofactor in the enzyme. The A. terreus lipase retained significant activity on freeze-drying and had a shelf-life of more than 6 months at room temperature. The A. terreus lipase exhibited 1,3-regiospecificity and was stable in various organic solvents.

Thursday, January 12, 2006

Friday, Jan. 13, 2006, Seminar abstract by Ms. Kalpita Salgaonkar, M.Sc. Part II, Topic:Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles...

Topic:Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silvernanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains
Authors: Nelson Durán1, Priscyla D Marcato* ,Oswaldo L Alves* , Gabriel IH De Souza* and ElisaEsposito*
speaker: Kalpita salgaonkar Msc part II
Date: 13 january 2006
Time: 12 pm
Venue: botany department
Extracellular production of metal nanoparticles byseveral strains of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum wascarried out. It was found that aqueous silver ionswhen exposed to several Fusarium oxysporum strains arereduced in solution, thereby leading to the formationof silver hydrosol. The silver nanoparticles were inthe range of 20–50 nm in dimensions. The reduction ofthe metal ions occurs by a nitrate-dependent reductaseand a shuttle quinone extracellular process. Thepotentialities of this nanotechnological design basedin fugal biosynthesis of nanoparticles for severaltechnical applications are important, including theirhigh potential as antibacterial material.

Friday, 13, Seminar abstract by Ms. Laxmi Ramaswamy, M.Sc. Part I, Topic:-Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis: a thermotolerant fungus....

Topic:-Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis: a thermotolerant fungus with potential for production of thermostable amylases
Simone C. Peixoto, João A. Jorge, Héctor F. Terenzi and Maria de Lourdes T.M. Polizeli.

Journal:-International Microbiology, Volume 6 [4], pgs:-269 - 273

Date:-January13th, 2006

Time:- 12 pm

Speaker:- Laxmi Ramaswamy, M.Sc Part II

Abstract:-The effect of several nutritional and environmental parameters on growth and amylase production from Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis was analysed. This fungus was isolated from soil of the Brazilian "cerrado" and produced high levels of amylolytic activity at 45°C in liquid medium supplemented with starch, sugar cane bagasse, oat meal or cassava flour. Glucose in the culture medium drastically repressed the amylolytic activity. The products of hydrolysis were analysed by thin layer chromatography, and glucose was detected as the main component. The amylolytic activity hydrolysed several substrates, such as amylopectin, amylase, glycogen, pullulan, starch, and maltose. Glucose was always the main end product detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. These results indicated that the amylolytic activity studied is a glucoamylase, but there were also low levels of -amylase. As compared to other fungi, R. microsporus var. rhizopodiformis can be considered an efficient producer of thermostable amylases, using raw residues of low cost as substrates. This information is of technological value, considering the importance of amylases for industrial hydrolysis.

Friday, Jan. 13, 2006, Seminar abstract by MS. Suvarna Talwar, M.Sc. Part I, PHYTOCHROME CONTROL OF THE Arabidopsis TRANSCRIPTOME..

AUTHORS – Maria Agustina Mazzella , Maria veronicaArana , Roberto J. Staneloni , Susana Perelman ,Maria J Rodriguzes Batiller , Jorge Muschietti , Pablo D. Cerdan , Kunhua Chen ,Rodolfo A. Sanchez , Tong Zhu , Joanne Chory , and
Jorge J. Casal
The Plant cell vol.17, pg 2507-2516, sep 2005
PRESENTER – Suvarna Talwar (part 1)
VENUE- Botany DepartmentDATE – 6 Jan 2006
Phytochromes mediate a profound developmental shiftwhen dark-grown seedling are exposed to light. Here,we show that a subset of genes is upregulated inphytochrome B (phyB) mutants even before dark- grownArabidopsis thaliana seedlings are exposed to light.Most of the genes bear RY cis motif, which is abinding site of the transcription factor ABSCISIC ACIDINSENSITIVES3 (ABI3), and the phyB mutation alsoenhances ABI3 __expression. These changes intranscriptome have physiological consequences, becauseseedlings of the abi3 mutant showed enhanced responseto pulses of far-red light, whereas ABI3overexpressers exhibited the opposite pattern.Seedlings of the wild type derived from seedsgerminated in full darkness showed enhanced__expression of genes bearing the RY cis motif andreduced responses to far-red light. We propse that,via changes in ABI3 __expression, light, perceivedmainly by phyB in the seed, generates a downstreamtransdevelopmental phase signal that preconditions theseedling to its most likely environment.

Jan. 6, 2005, About Beautiful people and aliens of the deep

Some films leave behind deep impressions on our mind. The animal world comes alive with humour in "beautiful people' and the underwater world comes alive in "the aliens of the deep".

Wednesday, December 21, 2005

Friday, Dec. 23, 2005, Seminar programme, Abstract by Ms. Vidhya Prabhudessai, M.Sc. Part I, Cadmium accumulation and DNA homology .....

Cadmium Accumulation and DNA Homology with MetalResistance Genes in sulfate-Reducing Bacteria
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, August.2005, p.4610-4618

Time :12.00-13.00pm

Presenter: Vidhya Prabhudessai (M.sc I)

Cadmium resistance (0.1 to1.0mM) was studied in four pure and One mixed culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The growthOf the bacteria was monitored with respect to carbon source (lactate)Oxidation and sulfate reduction in the presence of various concentrationsOf cadmium chloride. Two strains Desulfovibrio desuifurians DSM 1926And Desulfococcus multivorans DSM 2059 showed the highest resistance to Cadmium (0.5mM). Transmission electron microscopy of the two strains Showed intracellular and periplasmic accumulation of cadmium. Dot blot DNA hybridization using the probes for the smtAB,cadAC, and cadD genes Indicated the presence of similar genetic determinants of heavy metal Resistance in the SRB tested. DNA sequencing of the amplified DNA showed Strong nucleotide homology in all the SRB strains with the known smtAB Genes encoding synechococcal metallothioneins. Protein homology with the Known heavy metal-traslocating ATPases was also detected in the cloned Amplified DNA of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM 1926, suggesting thePresence of multiple genetic mechanisms of metal resistance in the two strains.

For Friday seminars>December 23, 2005, Abstract by Ms. Sandhya Sadhanandan, M.Sc. Part I, Mycosubtilin overproduction by Bacillus subtilis BBG100....

Mycosubtilin overproduction by Bacillus subtilis BBG100 enhances the organism’s Antagonistic and Biocontrol activities.
Valerie Leelere, Max Bechet, Akram Adam, Jean Sebastein Guez et.al

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol.71(8), Aug.2005, p.4577-4584

Date: 23/12/05 Time: 12.00 to 13.00

Presenter: Sandhya Sadhanandhan (MSc I)

A Bacillus subtilis derivative was obtained from strain ATCC 6633 by replacement of the native promoter of the mycosubtilin operon by a constitutive promoter originating from the replication gene repU of the Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pUB110.The recombinant strain, designated BBG100, produced up to 15-fold more mycosubtilin than the wild type. The overproducing phenotype was related to the enhancement of the antagonistic activities against several yeasts and pathogenic fungi. Hemolytic activities were also clearly increased in the modified strain. Mass spectrometry analysis of enriched mycosubtilin extracts showed similar patterns of lipopeptides for BBG100 and the wild type. Interestingly, these analysis also revealed a new form of mycosubtilin which was more easily detected in the BBG100 sample. When tested for its biocontrol potential, wild type strain ATCC 6633 was almost ineffective for reducing a Pythium infection of tomato seedlings. However, treatment of seeds with the BBG100 overproducing strain resulted in a marked increase in the germination rates of seeds. This protective effect afforded by mycosubtilin overproduction was also visualized by the significantly greater fresh weight of emerging seedlings treated with BBG100 compared to controls or seedlings inoculated with the wild type strain

Wednesday, December 14, 2005

Friday, 16 Dec. 2005, Seminar abstract by Ms. Mandakini Kavalekar,M.Sc. II

Topic: Phytoremediation of Organomercurial Compounds via Chloroplast Genetic Engineering.
Authors: Oscar N. Ruiz, Hussein S. Hussein, Norman Terry, and Henry Daniell.
Journal: Plant Physiology, July 2003, Vol.132, pp. 1344-1352

Date: 16/12/05

Venue: Botany Department.

Time: 12.00 pm

Speaker: Mandakini Kavlekar.


Mercury (Hg), especially in organic form, is a highly toxic pollutant affecting plants, animals, and man. In plants, the primary target of Hg damage is the chloroplast; Hg inhibits electron transport and photosynthesis. In the present study, chloroplast genetic engineering is used for the first time to our knowledge to enhance the capacity of plants for phytoremediation. This was achieved by integrating a native operon containing the merA and merB genes (without any codon modification), which code for mercuric ion reductase (merA) and organomercurial lyase (merB), respectively, into the chloroplast genome in a single transformation event. Stable integration of the merAB operon into the chloroplast genome resulted in high levels of tolerance to the organomercurial compound, phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) when grown in soil containing up to 400 µM PMA; plant dry weights of the chloroplast transformed lines were significantly higher than those of wild type at 100, 200, and 400 µM PMA. That the merAB operon was stably integrated into the chloroplast genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern-blot analyses. Northern-blot analyses revealed stable transcripts that were independent of the presence or absence of a 3'-untranslated region downstream of the coding sequence. The merAB dicistron was the more abundant transcript, but less abundant monocistrons were also observed, showing that specific processing occurs between transgenes. The use of chloroplast transformation to enhance Hg phytoremediation is particularly beneficial because it prevents the escape of transgenes via pollen to related weeds or crops and there is no need for codon optimization to improve transgene _expression. Chloroplast transformation may also have applications to other metals that effect chloroplast function.

Friday, Dec. 16, 2005 seminar-abstract of the paper to be presented by Ms. Namrata Mhalsekar, M.Sc. II

Topic: Production of Virus Free Seeds using Meristem Culture in Tomato Plant under Tropical Conditions.Authors: M.F. Alam, M.L.A. Banu. A.M. Swaraz, S.Pravez, M. Hossain, M.Khalekuzzaman, N.Ahsan.
Journal: Journal of Plant Biotechnology. Volume: B(4) pp-221-227.

Date: December 16 , 2005.

Time: 12 pm

Speaker : Namrata Mhalsekar M.Sc part II
Protocol was established for production of virus free healthy seeds using meristem (0.3 –0.3-0.5 mm in size) culture and field management under net house condition in tomato. The isolated meristem was found well established in MS liquid medium containing 0.1 mg/litre of GA3. For Shoot and Root development either from primary meristem or from nodal segment of meristem derived plants, semisolid MS medium having 0.5 mg /litre of IBA was found most effective .The elimination of the studied viruses ( ToMV, CMV, ToLCV) in meristem derived plants was confirmed by the DAS –ELISA test. For the field management of the virus eradicated meristem derived plants, use of the net house was found very effective measures to check viral vector visit and eventually infection .The meristem derived plants were vigor and higher yield than the native seed derived plants and produced healthy seeds. Due to stop vector visit, no viral symptoms were observed in both R1 and R2 plants cultivated in net house condition. Starting of viral infestation was observed in R2 generation when they were planted in open house condition without control of vector visit. Therefore, for management of viral diseases use of virus free meristem derived plantlets and their subsequent cultivation in soil under the net house conditions without using any vector killing insecticide can be recommended for producing healthy seeds in tomato. The developed protocol for environmentally healthy tomato seed production in Bangladesh may be used in the countries having similar tropical like environment conducive for viral vector visit.

Tuesday, December 13, 2005

Read My article on Chemoinformatics

The magic of Chemoinformatics
(Published in my weekly science column, New Frontiers, Spotlight, Science & Ecology page, The Navhind Times www.navhindtimes.com, Wednesday, December 14, 2005)
I have come refreshed after attending a very stimulating and educative National Workshop on applications of informatics in marine biodiversity conservation which concluded last week at National Institute of Oceanography. There were 34 participants. The seminar coordinator Dr. C.T. Atchuthankutty had made excellent arrangements as the director of NIO’s bioinformatics center. We were trained with well planned hands on sessions by some of the top people in the field of biodiversity informatics, bioinformatics and chemoinformatics. There were two scientists from National Chemical laboratory (NCL) , Pune. Dr. Vishwas Chavan, (vishwas@ncl.res.in ) , who had earlier worked at NIO opened the world of ‘Biodiversity informatics’ before us. The NCL center for biodiversity informatics has been doing some great work and I advice all the readers to visit their website- http://www.ncbi.org.in .Its’ mission is "to develop tools and standards, and to help improve infrastructure and capacity building to accelerate national progress in collection, collation, analysis, prediction and dissemination of knowledge about Indian biotic resources and its environ to make their sustainable use". Dr. M. Karthikeyan is a scientist at the Chemoinformatics center at NCL. He presented the magical world of Chemoinformatics before the participants. What is chemoinformatics?. Is it a new fad?. Certainly no. Chemoinformatics is a generic term that covers “ the design, creation, organization, storage, management, retrieval, analysis, dissemination, visualization and use” of chemical information. Chemoinformatics activities accelerate the transformation of data into knowledge by processing the information associated with the data. Prof. Urmila-Kulkarni Kale , who teaches at the Bioinformatics center of University of Pune educated us on Bioinformatics. The workshop began with an impressive and information rich key note address by Marine Microbiologist Dr. Chandramohan who provided latest information on status and trends in biodiversity informatics. Interested readers may visit the websites suggested by him such as Global biodiversity information facilities’ www.gbif.org which has about eight million records, the world biodiversity database at www.biodiv.org and the very exciting site of the global initiative to document anything that is living in the world’s oceans and estuaries-the census of marine life-www.coml.org. A senior biological oceanographer and a global expert on Corals Dr. Wafar had also given a detailed presentation on this fascinating global initiative. India is not lagging behind in such efforts because the NCL and NIO have linked up to establish a hub of Ocean biogeographic information system in India. Coming back to the magical world of Chemoinformatics- very few people would know that NCL has established a vast database of molecules. Scientists like Dr. Karthikeyan have been working with new ideas to mine information on useful molecules from the web. Some of the areas At NCL are , to prepare the Standards and Efficiency in Chemical Structure Representation , Building Large Molecular structure database with associated data, Technology Development (Encoding methods) ,Chemical Data Mining Application in Chemistry , Design of knowledge based combi-libraries for drug-likeliness, Database of chemical structures with predicted properties (solubility etc.,) Building Chemoinformatics portals to access molecular information, Using Automation technology for chemical inventory (Barcodes, RF), High Performance Environment for Distributed / Grid Computing applications in chemistry , Protein Databank Analysis for drug discovery , Emerging Areas in Chem-Bioinformatics , Design and development of Electronic Laboratory Notebooks, Chemical Literature and Patent Analysis (Top Selling Drugs), Text based Mining & Information Harversting , Open Archive Initiatives (Chemical Information Analysis), Risk Assessment of Strategic Chemicals in the Environment etc. If your computer has a minimum 256 Mb RAM, a 3 D accelerator Graphic card with Direct X-9c or above and Java 2 enabled platform then you can explore online NCL’s Chemoinformatics portal by visiting http://www.moltable.ncl.res.in. What would you find there?. At least 24081 protein molecules and an interactive dynamic PDB (protein Data bank) browser. Searching protein molecules online and visualizing their structures was never so simple. No need to install a separate molecular viewer. At 40 plus kbps speed I could download a protein molecule per minute. Dr. Karthikeyan also taught us designing of the molecules and uploading these to JCHEM and MySQL databases. Interestingly it is possible to open a molecular structure file in a simple text editor. You play with the positional X. Y. Z co-ordinates- and lo there you have a new molecule which you can view, spin and understand physico-chemically. On his recommendation, after accepting the single site and personal , non commercial use licensing condition I downloaded and began using the beautiful and simple to use Marvin Sketch molecular drawing and visualization software. Visit http://www.chemaxon.com/marvin/ to download it. It has to be used responsibly but I’m sure the students of Chemistry would immensely benefit from it if they start practicing with it. It is not that difficult. In case you encounter difficulties send an e-mail to Dr. Karthikeyan at m.karthikeyan@ncl.res.in .Earlier I used ACD labs’ Chemsketch freeware version 8.0 which has its’ own strength like the peptide, the carbohydrate and the nucleic acid builders. But now I am more tempted to use Marvin sketch and MarvinView. It is amazing to see the availability of so many interactive tools in Chemoinformatics. What the chemophiles are waiting for?. Chemoinformatics has a great future because you can hunt for useful molecules by data mining and then you can build new molecules and test them using a new technique called ‘in silico” (on computer). Chemoinformatics leads you to the prediction of new molecules of pharmacological importance. A combination of bioinformatics and Chemoinformatics means a lot of power in your hands. Pharma and Biotech companies are heavily investing in these areas because there is Gold rush to discover new molecules, design new genes and gene products and benefit from the spinoffs. Dr. Karthikeyan raised my confidence that India could be a global superpower in Chemoinformatics in a few years. But the young generation needs to take keen interest in such frontier areas of knowledge. Textbook chemistry can come alive once the students start building molecules themselves. NCL has also uploaded its’ collection of 177 doctoral theses and 22 reports. This is a mountain of research information. Search- http://dspace.ncl.res.in/dspace/index.jsp, an open access facility. With so many exciting things happening on Bio/Chemoinformatics front in India, think of your career choices intelligently right from the Class X th.

Friday Seminar Programme, Dec. 16, 2005, Read the abstract of paper by Ms. Archangela Lobo, M.Sc. Part I

Topic:Wine Yeast Strains Engineered for Glycogen Overproduction Display Enhanced Viability under Glucose Deprivation Conditions

Author:R. Pérez-Torrado, J. V. Gimeno-Alcañiz, and E. Matallana

Journal:Applied And Environmental Microbiology, July 2005, pp 3339-3344

Date:16 December 2005

Presenter: Arcangela Lobo
Abstract:We used metabolic engineering to produce wine yeasts with enhanced resistance to glucose deprivation conditions. Glycogen metabolism was genetically modified to overproduce glycogen by increasing the glycogen synthase activity and eliminating glycogen phosphorylase activity. All of the modified strains had a higher glycogen content at the stationary phase, but accumulation was still regulated during growth. Strains lacking GPH1, which encodes glycogen phosphorylase, are unable to mobilize glycogen. Enhanced viability under glucose deprivation conditions occurs when glycogen accumulates in the strain that overexpresses GSY2, which encodes glycogen synthase and maintains normal glycogen phosphorylase activity. This enhanced viability is observed under laboratory growth conditions and under vinification conditions in synthetic and natural musts. Wines obtained from this modified strain and from the parental wild-type strain don't differ significantly in the analyzed enological parameters. The engineered strain might better resist some stages of nutrient depletion during industrial use.

Friday, December 09, 2005

UGC-INFLIBNET electronic journals list-Biological science

This list would help you to select appropriate journal and your seminar topics. Only the journals with active links are subscribed by the UGC. The list refers to only Biological science journals.

List of Biological Science e-journals
Accreditation and Quality Assurance
Acta Biotheoretica
Acta Diabetologica
Acta ethologica
Acta Neuropathologica
Agriculture and Human Values
Agroforestry Systems (in cooperation with ICRAF)
Amino Acids
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Anatomy and Embryology
Animal Cognition
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Aquaculture International
Aquatic Ecology
Aquatic Geochemistry
Aquatic Sciences - Research Across Boundaries
Archive for History of Exact Sciences
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Archives of Microbiology
Archives of Toxicology
Archives of Virology
Behavior Genetics
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Biochemical Genetics
Biochemistry (Moscow)
Biodiversity and Conservation
Biologia Plantarum
Biological Cybernetics
Biological Invasions
Biological Reviews
Biology & Philosophy
Biology and Fertility of Soils
Biology Bulletin
Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Biomedical Microdevices
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Bioscience Reports
Biotechnology Letters
Biotechnology Techniques
Bird Conservation International
Botanica Helvetica
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Calcified Tissue International
Cancer Cell
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy
Cell and Developmental Biology
Cell and Tissue Banking
Cell and Tissue Research
Cell Biology
Cell Biology and Toxicology
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Chemistry and Biology
Chromosome Research
Computational Geosciences
Computing and Visualization in Science
Conservation Genetics
Coral Reefs
Current Genetics
Current Microbiology
Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Current opinion in Chemical Biology
Current Opinion in Genetics and Developments
Current Opinion in Immunology
Current Opinion in Microbiology
Current Opinion in neurobiology
Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Development Genes and Evolution
Developmental Cell
Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics
Doklady Biochemistry continued in `Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics'
Doklady Biological Sciences
Drug Discovery Today
Edinburgh Journal of Botany
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata
Environmental and Ecological Statistics
Environmental Biology of Fishes
Environmental Management
European Biophysics Journal
European Food Research and Technology
European Journal of Applied Physiology
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
European Journal of Forest Research
European Journal of Nutrition
European Journal of Plant Pathology
Evolutionary Ecology
Experimental Agriculture
Experimental and Applied Acarology
Experimental Brain Research
Fertilizer Research (Now: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Functional & Integrative Genomics
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
Genetical Research
Genomics and Human Genetics
Gesunde Pflanzen
Glycoconjugate Journal
Glycoconjugate Journal
Helgoland Marine Research
Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Human Biology
Human Physiology
Ichthyological Research
Inflammation Research
Insectes Sociaux
Integrated Pest Management Reviews
International Journal of Astrobiology
International Journal of Biometeorology
International Journal of Cosmetic Science
International Journal of Primatology
Invertebrate Neuroscience
Irrigation and Drainage Systems
Irrigation Science
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics
Journal of Agricultural Science
Journal of Applied Phycology
Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Health (Now: Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry
Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Journal of Biosocial Science
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Journal of Chemical Ecology
Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Journal of Comparative Physiology A+B
Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design
Journal of Ethology
Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology
Journal of Fluorescence
Journal of Forest Research
Journal of General Plant Pathology
Journal of Human Genetics
Journal of Inclusion Phenomena
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal of Insect Behavior
Journal of Mammalian Evolution
Journal of Marine Science and Technology
Journal of Mathematical Biology
Journal of Molecular Evolution
Journal of Molecular Histology
Journal of Molecular Medicine
Journal of Molecular Modeling
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
Journal of Oceanography
Journal of Paleolimnology
Journal of Pest Science
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics (Now: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics)
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation
Journal of Plant Research
Journal of Protein Chemistry
Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics
Landscape Ecology
Letters in Peptide Science
Mammalian Genome
Marine Biology
Marine Biotechnology
Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Metabolic Brain Disease
Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability
Methods in Cell Science
Microbial Ecology
Microscopy and Microanalysis
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biology Reports
Molecular Breeding
Molecular Cell
Molecular Diversity
Molecular Engineering
Molecular Genetics and Genomics
Molecules and Cells
Mycological Research
Natur und Recht
Natural Computing
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Neuron Glia Biology
New Forests
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
Optimization and Engineering
Optimization and Engineering
Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Parasitology Research
Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Perspectives in Drug Discovery and Design
Pflügers Archiv
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal
Pharmaceutical Research
Phytochemistry Reviews
Plant and Soil
Plant Biology
Plant Cell Reports
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture
Plant Ecology (formerly Vegetatio)
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Plant Growth Regulation
Plant Molecular Biology
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter
Plant Systematics and Evolution
Poiesis & Praxis: International Journal of Technology Assessment and Ethics of Science
Polar Biology
Population Ecology
Precision Agriculture
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology
Sexual Plant Reproduction
Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics
Sozial- und Präventivmedizin/Social and Preventive Medicine
Springer Seminars in Immunopathology
Systematic Parasitology
TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics
The European Physical Journal E - Soft Matter
The Histochemical Journal
The Journal of Membrane Biology
The Protein Journal
Transgenic Research
Trees - Structure and Function
Trends in Biochemical Science
Trends in Biotechnology
Trends in Cell Biology
Trends in Cognitive Science
Trends in Ecology and Evolution
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This is a reformatted copy of the Post gradutae syllabus of Botany, Goa University, as it was last approved by the Board of studies.
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1. General characteristics and classification of algae (2 Lect.)
2. Comparative account of following groups: (within & between) a)Chlorophycophyta; b) Charophyta c) Euglenophycophyta; d)Phaeophycophyta; e)Chrysophycophyta, f) Pyrrhophycophyta; g) Cryptophycophyta; and h)Rhodophycophyta.
3. Phylogeny and interrelationships of algae.
4. Fossil algae
BRYOPHYTA: (9 Lect.)
1. General characteristics and classification of Bryophyta.
2. Comparative features of following groups. (within & between) Hepaticopsida; , Anthocerotopsida; Bryopsida
3. Origin of bryophytes; gametophyte and it's evolution; Sporophyte and its evolution.
4. Fossil Bryophytes.
5. Economic importance of Bryophyta
1. General characteristics and classification of pteridophyta.
2. Comparative account of following groups: (within & between) a) Psilophyta, b) Lycophyta , c) Equisetophyta , d) Filicophyta
3. Soral evolution stelar evolution, Apospory and Apogamy
4. 4. Fossil Pteridophytes; Heterospory and seed habit; Economic importance of pteridophytes.
1. General characteristics of gymnosperms and classification; economic importance of gymnosperms.
2. Comparative account of following groups (within & between) gymnosperms. a)Progymnospermopsida, b) Gymnospermopsida. c) Gnetopsida
3. Fossil gymnosperms a brief account.
1. Study of fresh water and marine phytoplanktons. 2. Study of Economically important algae. 3. Preservation of marine algae. 4. Preparation of permanent slides for algae.5. Vegetative and reproductive features of important algal groups. 6. Vegetative and reproductive features of important group of Bryophyta. 7. Vegetative and reproductive features of important groups of Pteridophyta. 8. Study of Sporangia in ferns.9. Vegetative and reproductive features of important Gymnosperms groups.10. Field visits for collection of algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms.. 11. Visit to Institute / Museum.
1. BOLD H.C. and Wynee M.J. 1978. Introduction to the algae; Structure and reproduction. Prentice Hall, Englewood cliffs, New Jersey.
2. Chapman V.J. and Chapman D.J/ 1975. The algae, 2nd Edition, Mac. Millan Publ. Inc. New York.
3. Chapman V.J. and Chapman D.J. 1980. Seaweeds and their uses 3rd Edition, Chapman and Hall, London.
4. Dodge J.D. 1973, The fine structure of algal cells, Academic Press, New Delhi.
5. Fritech F.E. 1835. The structure and reproduction of the algae. Vol. II, University Press Cambridge 939 pp.
6. Fritech F.E. 1945. The structure and reproduction of the algal Vol. I. University Press, Cambridge 791 pp.
7. Prescott G.W. 1981. Algae: A review. Thomas Nelson and Sons.
8. Round F.E. 1981. The Ecology of Algae, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
9. Smith G.M. 1955. Cryptogamic Botany. Vo. I & II. Algae and Fungi, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hill, New York.
10. Trainor F.R. 1978. Introductory Phycology, Wiley & Sons. New York.
11. Vashishta B.R. 1988. Algae. S. Chand & Co., New Delhi.
12. Cavera. F. 1910. Interrelationships of Bryophyta, New Phytol 10: 1-46, 84-86.
13. Parihar N.S. 1967. An introduction of embryophyta. Vol.I Central Book Depot, Allahabad.
14. Udar R. an introduction to Bryophyta.
15. Waston E.V. 1971. Structure and life of Bryophyta. Third Edition, Hutchinson and Co. London.
16. Eames. A.J. 1936. Morphology of Vascular plants. Lower group Mc Graw Hill, New York.
17. Rashidl A. 1986. An introduction to pteridophytes. Vani Educational book, N.D.C.
18. Sporne K.R. 1976. Morphology of Pteridophytes. Hutchinson University, Library London.
19. Surange K.R. 1966. Indian Fossil pteridophytes C.S.I.R., New Delhi.
20. Verdon F.R. Mannual of Pteridology.
21. Chamberiain C.J. 1986. Gymnosperm structure and Evolution. C.B.S. Publishers and Distributors.
22. Coulter J.M. and Chamberiain C.J. 1917. Morphology of Gymnosperms. University of Chicago Press.
23. Foster and Gifford. Coparative morphology of Vascular plants. Vakils, Feffer and Simoris Ltd.
24. Ramanujan C.K.G. Indian Gymnosperms in time and space. Today & Tomorrow’s Printers & Publishers.
25. Sporne, K.R. 1965, Morphology of Gymnosperms Hutchinson University Library.
General characteristics of Fungi; Comparative account of morphology, physiological specialization, reproduction and phylogenetic affinities major groups; Structural, functional and ecological specialization of fungal mycelia and spores; Taxonomy and nomenclature; Modern trends in classification; Fungal biodiversity.
Study of the following groups with suitable native examples: Myxomycotina, Mastigomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina.
Brief reference to economic importance of fungi; Ecto- and endo-mycorrhizae; Ericoid and Orchid mycorrhizae; edible and poisonous Mushrooms; Lichens; Yeasts; Fungal cultures; Fungal bioprospecting; Secondary metabolites; Industrial significance; Fungi in food processing, production of enzymes, alcohols, antibiotics and pharmacetuticals; Mycotoxins in food and feed; Fungi as biocontrol agents. (12)
Morphology and fine structure; Chemical composition of bacterial cell; Classification and Nomenclature; Economic importance in relation to biological nitrogen-fixation, antibiotics and enzymes; (4)
Structure and importance of Mycoplasma and L-forms. (1)
Morphology, chemical composition, ultrastructure, replication, classification and nomenclature of Plant Viruses; The virus cryptogram; Transmission of Plant Viruses; Virus-Vector relationship; Control of Plant Viruses; Viroids and Prions. (3)
A brief account of history of plant pathology in India. Symptomatology in fungal, bacterial and viral diseases of plants; Obligate and facultative pathogens.
Classification of plant diseases, methods in the study of plant diseases; Koch Postulates; Principles of pathogen penetration and infection and spread of disease; Source of inoculum; Host-Parasite interaction; Role of enzymes and toxins in pathogenesis; Susceptability and resistance; Epidemiology and disease forecasting; Control of crop diseases by cultural, physical, chemical and biological methods; Resistant varieties; Crop rotation; Plant quarantine; Seed certification; (6)
Post-harvest and market pathology.
Diseases of cereals, pulses, vegetables, oil-seed crops, fruit plants, and plantation crops; Mycoplasma, protozoan and nemetode diseases, etiology, epidemiology and management of following crop diseases: Paddy: blast, brown leaf-spot, sheath blight, bacterial leaf blight and tungro Virus; Jowar: smut by Sphacelotheca sorghi and S. cruenta; Sugarcane: red rot; Groundnut - tikka; Cotton - \wilt; Coconut - leaf blight, wilt, yellowing; Banana - Leaf spot, bunchy-top disease; Mango - powdery mildew, sooty mould. (8)
1. Study of microbiological laboratory techniques; Preparation of agar culture media; Sterilization; Isolation and culturing of fungi and bacteria; Colony characters; Microscopic observations; Mounting fluids; Morphology of hyphae and spores or reproductive structures of different genera of fungi.
2. Observation of different fungal substrates on sterile moist chamber incubation (e.g. herbivore dung; decomposing leaf-litter); Observations on ecological succession of fungi; Terrestrial, marine and freshwater fungi.
3. Serial dilution technique (e.g. soil, dung and leaf-litter); Qualitative and quantitative estimation of fungi from different habitats.
4. Collection of infected specimens in the field; Observation of symptoms; Laboratory studies; Hand sections and tease mounts; Study of as many as possible viral, bacterial and fungal diseases of crop plants from surrounding fields in Goa.
5. Bacterial staining by using Gram stain.
6. Isolation of Rhizobium from root nodule of leguminous plant.
7. Observations on enzyme and antibiotic production in fungi and actinomycetes
8. Submission of 10 dried herbarium specimens of infected plant materials collected from nearby habitats and 5 pure cultures of different fungi on slants isolated from various substrates.
AINSWORTH, G.C., HAWKSWORTH, D.L. AND SUTTON, B.C. 1988. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of Fungi (8th Edition). Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, U.K.
AINSWORTH, G.C. AND SUSSMAN, A.S.(Ed.) 1965-1973). The Fungi: An Advanced treatise. vol.I. The Fungal Cell; vol.II. The Fungal Organism. vol.III. The Fungal Population. Academic Press, London.
AINSWORTH, G.C., SPARROW, F.K. AND SUSSMAN, F.K. 1973. The Fungi. an Advanced Tretise. Vol I-IV B. Academic Press, New York.
ALEXOPOULOS, C.J. 1973. Introductory Mycology. John Wiley, New York ALEXOPOULOS, C.J and Mims. 1979. Introductory Mycology.
BURNETT, J.H. 1976. Fundamentals of Mycology. Arnold, London.
BUTLER, E.J. 1918. Fungi and Diseases in Plants. Thacker Spink & Co., Calcutta.
DUBE, H.C. 1983. An Introduction to Fungi. Vikas, New Delhi.
HAWKSWORTH, D.L. 1974. Mycologist's Handbook. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, England.
JOHNSTON,A AND BOOTH,C. 1983. Plant Pathologist's Pocket Book. ommonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, England.
KENDRICK, B. 1992. The Fifth Kingdom. Focus Information Groups, Inc., Canada
KENDRICK, B. 1979. The Whole Fungus. National Museums of Canada. tawa
MAHADEVAN, A. 1982. Biochemical aspects of Plant Disease
Resistance. Part I. Today and Tomorrow, New Delhi.
MEHROTRA, R.S. Plant Pathology.
RANGASWAMY, G. 1988. Diseases of Crop Plants in India. Prentice--Hall of India, Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi.
SINGH, R.S. Plant Disease.
WEBSTER, J. 1980. Introduction to Fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
1. Scope and importance of taxonomy; taxonomy as a synthetic discipline. (1)
2. Theories on origin and evolution of angiosperms; evolutionary trends in floral parts. (3)
3. Principles and broad outline of Bentham & Hooker’s and Cronquist's systems of classification; salient features and phylogeny of subclasses of Cronquist's system of classification. (2)
4. Exomorphological characters as the basis of taxonomy; contribution from the fields of morphology, anatomy, palynology and embryology to taxonomy. (4)
5. Cytotaxonomy: Chromosomal information - Taxonomic evidences from the number, structure and behaviour of chromosomes. (2)
6. Biosystematics: scope and significance; principles and procedures; relationship between experimental and classical taxonomy; experimental categories. (2)
7. Phytogeography and taxonomy: Patterns of geographical distribution, disjunction, vicariance, endemism and their relevance to plant taxonomy. (2)
8. Phenetic methods in taxonomy (Taxometrics) - Principles, hierarchic clustering procedures and ordination methods, computer programs used; limitations in application. (2)
9. Cladistics: Plesiomorphous and apomorphous characters; homologous and analogous characters; homoplasy; monophyly, polyphyly and paraphyly; parsimony and maximum liklihood methods in cladistics; computer programmes available; cladistics and classification. (2)
10. Secondary metabolites and taxonomy: Use of various phytochemical data in systematics with special reference to secondary metabolites; techniques used in systematics with special significance to secondary metabolites. (2)
11. Proteins and taxonomy: Importance of seed proteins in plant taxonomy; use of electrophoresis, aminoacid sequencing, serotaxonomy, allozyme and isozyme variations in plant taxonomy. (2)
12. Nucleic acids in taxonomy: Contributions from molecular biological techniques (RFLP, AFLP, DNA hybridization, sequencing, G+C content, PCR and RAPD) to plant taxonomy. (2)
13. The laboratories of taxonomic study: Field studies - importance and techniques; Herbarium - importance, techniques, maintenance and important herbaria of India and the world; Botanic Gardens - Role of Botanic Gardens; important gardens of India and the World. (4)
14. Keys and identification: Purpose, types (dichotomous and multiple entry keys); do's and dont's of key construction; computerized key construction. (2)
15. Botanical Nomenclature: ICBN; principles, rules and recommendations pertaining to publication, priority and typification; author(s) citation; important terminologies in nomenclature; application of ICBN.
16. Concept of taxa: Concept of species (nominalistic, taxonomic, biological, phylogenetic), genus and infraspecific taxa. (1)
17. Taxonomic literature: Significance and importance; Important Floras, Revisions, Monographs, Icones, General reference books and periodicals. (2)
18. Prospects of taxonomy - biodiversity and conservation priorities. IUCN Redlist categories; threatened taxa of Western Ghats. (2)

1.Phytography - description of specimen.
2. Construction of dichotomous indented and bracketed keys.
3.Identification of local plant species and their families.
4.Study of diagnostic characters of locally available families.
5.Numerical taxonomy of closely related species using computer.
6.Cladistics of small group using computer programs.
7.Interpretation of flavonoid data for taxonomy using PC\TLC.
8.Study of flora by undertaking field trips.
9.Study of different vegetation types and analyzing the difference in their floristic composition.
10.Visit to a major herbaria/ botanic garden/ major taxonomic centre.
Ahmedullah, M. & M.P. Nayar. 1987. Endemic Plants of the Indian Region. Vol.1. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah.
Benson,L.D. 1962. Plant Taxonomy: Methods and Principles. Ronald Press, New York.
Bilgrami, K.S. and J.V. Dogra. 1990. Phyto Chemistry and Plant Taxonomy. New Delhi, CBS Publishers .
Cronquist, A. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York.
Davis, P.H. & V.M. Heywood. 1963. Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.
Erdtman, G. 1986. Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy : Angiosperms An Introduction to Palynology. Netherland, E.J.Brill, Leiden.
Groombridge, B. (Ed.) 1992. Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth’s Living Resources. Chapman & Hall. London.
Heywood, V.H. 1967. Plant Taxonomy. Edward Arnold Ltd. Great Britain.
Jain, S.K. & R.R. Rao. 1977. A handbook of Field and Herbarium methods. Today and Tmorrow Printers and Publishers, New Delhi.
Jones, S.B. & A.E. Luchsinger. 1987. Plant Systematics (2nd Ed.) McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York.
Lawrence, G.H.M. 1951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.
Minelli, A. 1993. Biological Systematics : The State of the Art. London, Chapman & Hall.
Naik, V.K. 1984. Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Tata McGraw-Hill publishing Co. Ltd.
Nayar, M.P. “Hot Spots” of Endemic Plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan. TBGRI, Thiruvananthapuram.
Nayar, M.P. & A.R.K. Sastry. 1987-1990. Red Data Book on Indian Plants. Vol. I-III. Botanical Survey of India. Howrah.
Quicke, D.L.J. 1993. Principles and Techniques of Contemporary Taxonomy. Blackie Academic & Professional (An imprint of Chapman & Hall.
Radford, A.E., W.C. Dickinson, J.R. Massey and C.R. Bell. 1974. Vascular Plant Systematics, Harper & Row, New York.
Singh, G. 1999. Plant Systematics – theory and practice. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
Sivarajan, V.V. 1991 (2nd ed.). Introduction to the Principles of Plant Taxonomy. Oxford & IBH publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Stace, C.A. 1989 (2nd ed.). Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. Edward Arnold.
Subramanyam, N.S. 1995. Modern Plant Taxonomy. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
Takhtajan, A. 1981. Flowering Plants : Origin and Dispersal. Dehradun, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh.
Wiley, E.O. 1981. Phylogenetics : The Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic Systematics. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
1. Nucleic Acid: Structure of nucleotides; Bonding; Double helix and other helices; Repetition Supercoiling; potential for protein interaction; methods of purification and estimation of nucleic acid; Mutability and repair of DNA. (3)
2. Function of DNA and RNA: DNA replication; Enzymes involved in replication; different modes of replication; origin of replication; regulation DNA synthesis.
3. Transcriptions: different RNA (tRNA, mRNA, rRNA); enzymes in transcriptions; Initiations elongation and termination promotors and enhancers; RNA dependent RNA synthesis; Post transcriptional processing of RNA; regulation of protein synthesis. (6)
4. Translations: Ribosomes; genetic code; polypeptide chain; Factors involved in initiation, elongations and terminations; Post translational processing and modification; Transport of protein across the membrance. (5)
5. Restriction and modification of DNA: Basic principle of genetic engineering; restriction enzyme, cutting and joining the DNA; Vectors: plasmids, fine structure of vector gene desirability traits; construction of plasmid, purification of plasmids, various types of plasmids, Bacteriophage and cosmid, single and double standard vectors; Gene transfer to plant. Genetic system provided by E.Coli and its host.
6. Site directed mutagenesis: DNA sequencing, various strategies for carrying out site directed mutagenesis, various cloning strategies, Genome library and cDNA library.
7. Structure and expression of plant genome; general organisation of nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genome; structure and organisation of histone genes, tRNA in plants; Genetic interactions in nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondria; Genetic codes in organelles; Genetics of biogenesis and functioning of chloroplast and mitochondria.
8. Application of plant genetic engineering: Genetic engineering of plants for herbicide resistance, insect resistance, virus and abiotic stress resistance; targeting of protein to chlorophyll and mitochondria; development of fruit and vegetables with longer shelf life; Nif gene; Field testing of transgenic plants; Bio-safety issues in Indian contest; Indian rules, ragulation and procedures for handling transgenic plants. (5)
1. Purification of plasmid DNA. 2. Isolation and purification of plant DNA
3. Digestions of DNA by restriction enzymes and size fractionation of fragment.
4. RNA isolation and purification of mRNA. 5. Southern, northern and western blostting.
6. Transformation of antibiotic resistant trait. 7. PCR cycle. 8. DNA sequencing.
1. David Freifelder. 1987. Molecular Bilogy. Second Edition. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.
2. R. W. Old & S. B. Primerose. Principles of Gene Manipulation. An Introduction to Genetic Engineering.
3. Benjamin Lewin. 1999. GENES VII. Oxford University Press.
4. O’Brien, L. and R. J. Henry. Transgenic cereals. 2000. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.
5. Shaw, C. H. 1988. Plant Molecular Biology-Practical Approach. IRL Press, Oxford, Washington DC.
6. Grierson D and S. Covey. 1984. Plant Molecular Biology. Panima Educational Agency, New Delhi.
7. Gloria Coruzzi 1994. Plant Molecular Biology-Genetic Analysis of Plant Development and Metabolism. Springer-Verlag, New York, London.
8. Tewari, K. K. and G. S. Singhal.1997. Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.
9. Shivanna K. R. and V. K. Sawhney.1997. Pollen Biotechnology for Crop Improvement. Cambridge University Press. London.
1. Origin, growth, differentitation and ultrastructure of cells and tissues; Fine structure of plasmodesmata, microtubules, microfibrils. (2)
2. Cell Walls: Genesis and ultrastructure of cell walls, pits, cell-wall polymers, incrustation and adcrustation of cell walls; symplasm and apoplasm. (2)
3. Apical, lateral, intercalary meristems - their ultrastructure and histochemistry; organogenesis.
4. Ontogeny, phylogeny, evolution, ultrastructure and function of primary and secondary xylem; wood anatomy; bio-deterioration of wood and its prevention. (3)
5. Ontogeny, phylogeny, evolution, ultrastructure and function of primary and secondary phloem. (2)
6. Structural variability in leaves including leaf structure in C3 and C4 plants; leaf histogenesis; leaf meristems; origin, development and utrastructure of trichomes and stomata. (2)
7. Nodal anatomy - nodal types; phylogenetic and evolutionary considerations. (2)
8. Vascular cambium vs cork cambium, factors controlling their activity; periderm; lenticels; abscission; wound healing. (2)
9. Anatomy of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds and fruits; seed appendages - their ontogeny structure and functions. (2)
10. Contemperory plant anatomy - Current trends and prospects (1)
1. A brief historical account on development of our knowledge in embryology. Microsporangium - structure and functions of wall layers; Role of callose and tapetum in pollen development; Microsporogenesis and male gametophyte. (2)
2. Megasporogenesis - profiles of archesporial and megaspore mother cell; Megaspore tetrad, dyad, polarity of nuclei; Determination of functional megaspore. Different types of embryo sacs. (2)
3. Pollination - Ultrastructual and histological details of style and stigma; Self and interspecific incompatibility; Significance of pollen-pistil interaction; Role of pollen wall proteins and stigma surface proteins; Fertilization; Barriers of fertilization; in-vitro pollination. (2)
4. Types of Endosperm, Embryo development in dicots and monocots. A general account of apommixis and polyembryony. Growth and evelopment of seed; Applied aspects of embryology. (2)
1. A brief historical perspective. Pollen wall features; Development and evolution of pollen types; Palynology and Taxonomy. (3)
2. Aeropalynology, methods of aerospora survey and analysis; pollen allergy and pollen calendars. (2)
3. Pollen analysis of honey; honey bee and pollen loads; Role of apiaries in crop production.(2).
4. Palaeopalynology. (2)
5. Recent advances in palynological studies. (1)
1. Study of different ornamentation pattern in pollen grains.
2. Analysis of unifloral and multifloral honey.
3. Collection and identification of local aerospora
4. Study of microsporangium and its details.
5. Study of megasporangium and its details.
6. Types of endosperms and its modifications.
7. Embryo (dicot and monocot) and its modifications.
8. Anatomima of basis of identification C3, C4 plants.
9. Study of stomata and trichomes.
10. Anatomy of wood.
11. Lenticels, periderm.
12. Maceration techniques.
13. Any other Laboratory work based on topics mentioned in theory.
14. Submission of ten permanent micro-preparations (Hand and microtome preparations).
1. Eames A.J. & Mac Daniels L.H. (1947). Introduction to Plant anatomy. McGraw Hill, New York.
2. Esau K. (1985). Plant anatomy, 2nd Edition. Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi.
3. Carlquist S. (1961). Comparative Plant anatomy Holt. Rinehart & Winston, New YOrk.
4. Fahn.A (1990) Plant anataomy, 4th Edition, pergamon press, New York, Oxford.
5. Metcalf C.R. & Chalk L. (1950). anatomy of dicots Vol. I & II. London Press, Oxford.
6. Romberger J.A., Hejnowicz Z. & Hill J.F. 1993. Plant Structure: Function and Development. Springer-Verlag.
7. Bio deterioration of wood and its prevention in Indian coastal waters, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Malleswaram, Bangalore, 1997.
8. Bhojwani S.S. & Bhatnagar S.P. (1984). Embryology of Angiosperms. Vikas Publ. House, New Delhi.
9. Johri B.M. (1984). Comparative embryology of angiosperms. Ind. Nat. Sc. Acad. Johri B.M. (Ed) Ball No. 41. New Delhi.
10. Maheshwari P. (1985). An Introduction to embryology of angiosperms. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
11. Endtman G. (1952). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. Almquist and Wiksell. Stockholm.
12. Erdtman G. (1966). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. Hafner Publishing Co., New York.
13. Nair P.K.K. Essentials of palynology. Asha Publishing House, New York.
14. Nair P.K.K. (1966). Pollen morphology of angiosperms. Periodical expert book agency. New Delhi.
15. Ronald O. Kapp. (1969) . Pollen and Spores. W.M.C. Brown Co., New York.
16. Shivanna, K.R., V.K. Sawhney. 1997. Pollen Biotechnology for crop production and improvement. Cambridge University press. U.K.
Ecosystems: Components, relationship between structure and function; food chain, food webs, trophic levels, trophic structure and ecological pyramids; productivity - primary and secondary.
Aquatic ecosytems: Structure and dynamics of Marine (including coastal, Mangrove and Coral-reef ecosystems), Estuarine, Saltmarsh and Freshwater (lotic and lentic).
Terrestrial ecosystems: Characteristics, distribution and composition of following ecosystems: Sand dunes, Deserts, Savanna and woodlands, Deciduous forests, Tropical rain forests, Tundra, Taiga, Temperate Broad leaved forests.
Representative ecosystems of India: Tropical wet evergreen forests, Tropical dry & moist deciduous forests, Sholas and coastal & mangrove ecosystems of East and West coast. (12)
Community characteristics and structure: Community characteristics; Structure - Climax community: Clement's and Gleason's view of community structure, continuum concept; Physical structure of plant communities - life forms, vertical structure, spatial structure, seasonality and succession.
Community analysis: Community dominance, pattern in communities, ecotone and edge effect; Species diversity - Measurement of species diversity, diversity gradients and factors that cause diversity gradients, models explaining species richness in a community. Concept of keystone and flagship species. (5)
Population characteristics: Density, Natality, Mortality, Immigration and Emigration, Growth, Age distribution.
Population growth: Mathematical theory, Logistic theory; Time-lag models and stochastic models of population growth.
Population regulation: Self-regulation, Key factor analysis and Experimental analysis. (3)
Nature of mathematical models and goals of model building; basic tools in model building, approaches to the development of models. Applications and limitations. (3)
Tropical forests: types, structure, niches, species richness and diversity. (3)
Forest functioning: Plant-plant interaction; ecology of epiphytes; niches in the forests and their utilization by animals; plant-animal interaction in pollination (pollination syndromes- characteristic of bird, bat, beetle and bee-pollinated flowers) and seed dispersal (seed dispersal syndromes- characteristic of bird and mammal dispersal); seed rain and seed bank. (5)
Forest dynamics: Forest tree fall, canopy gaps and forest dynamics. (2)
Nutrient cycling in forests: Soils and their nutrients; nutrient uptake and accumulation in biomass; nutrient return to the system; through fall; litter fall, seasonality and litter decomposition; nutrient conserving mechanisms in forests. (2)
Human impact on forests: Trends and causes for concern; Genetic erosion and resource conservation; Environmental Impact Assessment, Wildlife Act, Forestry law; Biosphere Reserves, National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Reserved Forests; Role of different agencies in conservation of resources. (2)
Afforestation: Need; forestation programmes - Social forestry, Agroforestry, Farm forestry.
1. Determination of the minimum size of the quadrate for grazing land by species-area curve.
2. Determination of the minimum number of quadrates by minimum number method.
3. Determination of the quantitative characters of a plant community by random quadrate
4. Determination of the quantitative characters by belt-transact method in woodland.
5. Preparation of frequency diagram of a plant community.
6. Preparation of a vegetation profile of a forest.
7. Determination of `species diversity' in a plant community by Shannon-Weiner index and Simpson diversity index.
8. Estimation of aboveground biomass in a grazing land employing minimum size of quadrate.
9. Estimation of amount of organic carbon by Kalembasa & Jenkinson (1973) method.
10. Quantitative estimation of dissolved sodium and potassium using flame photometer.
Abrahamson, W.G. 1989. Plant Animal Interactions. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Begon, M., M. Mortimer & M. Mortimer. 1992. Population Ecology : A Unified Study of Animals and Plants. UBS Publishers Distributors Limited. New Delhi.
Chapman, J.L. & M.J. Reiss. 1995. Ecology : Principles and Applications. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Crawley, M.J. 1997 (2nd Ed.). Plant Ecology. Oxford, Blackwell Science Limited.
Krebs, C.J. 1985 ( 3 ed.). Ecology. Harper & Row, Publishers, New York.
Kumar, H.D. 1992. Modern Concepts of Ecology. Vikas Publishing House Private Limited. New Delhi.
Lal, J.B. 1992. Forest Ecology. Dehradun, Natraj Publications.
Odum, E.P. 1971 (3 ed.). Fundamentals of Ecology. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia.
Puri, G.S., R.K. Gupta, V.M. Meher-Homji. 1983-1989.Forest Ecology : 2 Vol. Plant Form, Diversity, Communities and Succession. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company Private Limited. New Delhi.
Whitmore, T.C. 1991. An introduction to Tropical rain forests. Oxford University Press.
1. The physico-chemical organisation of the plant cell and cell organelles; structure and composition of plasma membrance fl;uid mosaic lipo-protein model, surface monolayer, confirmation of lipid in micelles and membranes melting transition; movement of water and substances across the membrance. (2)
2. Water relation of plants, unique physico chemical properties of water; bulk movement of water, stomatal regulation of transpirataion, anti transpirants; (1)
3. Inorganic nutrition, macro and micro nutrients, deficiency symptoms, hydroponic studies; meneral absorption and trnslocation and assimilation; Nernst equation and Donnan’s equilibrium. (2)
4. Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrogen nutrition, organic nitrogen, nitrogen fixation in microbes, nitrate and ammonia assimilation: Sulfur metabolism and amino acid synthesis. inter relationship between photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism. (4)
5. Photosynthesis: Importance of photosynthesis, Photosynthesis and environment.
6. Light reaction: Radiant energy, photosynthetic apparatus, pigments and their biosynthesis; light harvesting complex; light absorption and composition and characyteristics of two photosystems, photosynthetic electron transport, water oxidation and its molecular mechanism, photophosphorylation, electron transport in other systems (bacteria). (4)
7. Dark reaction: Carbon dioxide fixation in C3, C4 and CAM plants regulation of PCR cycle; photorespiration and its regulation, environmental factors affecting photosynthesis. (2)
8. Stress physiology: Abiotic and biotic stresses, morphological and cellular adaptation; mechanism of stress tolerance and protection. (4)
9. Respiration: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; cyanide independent respiration; fermentation; cytochrome system; pathways of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; high energy compounds and afctors affecting respiration. (2)
10. Bioenergetics: Chemiosmotic hypothesis and energy transduction; energy transducing organelles mechanism of ATP synthesis, quantitative bioenergetics. (4)
11. 9. Enzymes: Structure and classification; mechanism of action; Michaelis-Menten equation; Lineweaver-Burk plot; enzyme regulation; allosteric enzymes, isozymes, co-enzymes and vitamins; immobilization and application of enzymes in industry. (4)
12. Plant growth substances: Auxin; cytokinin; Gibberellins; ethylene; ABA. polyamines; brassinosteroids their synthesis synthesis, distribution; and physiological effects.Application of hormones in agriculture and horticulture. (4)
13. Phytochromes: regulatory mechanism; role of phytochrome in tropism; physiology of flowering and fruiting. (2)
14. Seed dormancy and germination, senescence, circadian rhythms in plants (exogenous factors and molecular mechanism). (1)
15. Secondary plant metabolities (steroids, alkaloids, tannins, phenols) in higher plants and lower organisms. Allelopathic substances. (2)
PRACTICALS (any 10 ) (14-18)
1.To make molar and normal solution.
2. To determine pka of buffer/amino acids.
3. Verification of Beer's law
4. Quantitative and qualitative estimation of sugars
5. Qualitative and quantitative determination of amino acids
6. Determination of ascorbic acid content of cabbage.
7. Quantitative estimation of protein
8. Separation of protein by PAGE.
9. Pigments extraction, separation and quatitation.
10. Extraction of amylase and determination of Km and Vmax.
11. Enzyme activity with respect to temperature, pH and substrate concentration.
12. Estimation of total nitrogen from plant tissue
13. Analysis of plant tissue for water, organic and inorganic content and determination of a few macronutrient by AAS/FF.
14. Effect of inorganic nutrients on plant growth
15. Isolation of chloroplasts and mitochondria.
16. Assay of photosynthetic electron transport activity from isolated chloroplast.
17. Assay of respiratory electron transport activity from isolated mitochondria.
18. Estimation of nitrate/nitrite reductase activity in leaves.
19. Determination of water potential and osmotic potential in plant tissue.
20. Calcium and signal transduction: Cytoplasmic streaming in chara cells.
1. Physical basis of Heredity: Cell cycle milosis & meloses and their significance.Special type of Chromosomes (Lampbrush, Salivary gland and B-chromosomes; Prokaryotic nucleoids; Chromosome banding and techniques of chromosome banding, Fluorochromes.(4)
2. Maternal effects and cytoplasmic inheritance: Maternal effects; cytoplasmic inheritance involving dispensable hereditary units; male sterility in plants organellar geneticsChloroplast and mitochondria). (4)
3. Plasmids, IS elements, transposons and Retroelements: plasmids, Insertion sequence or IS elements; Transposons and controlling elements (in prokaryotes and Eukaryotes - copia, FB, P and I in Drosophila; Ty in yeast; Tam 1 in snapdragon dotted, AC-DC and Spm in corn; Retroelement (viral and non viral); Mechanism of transposition, uses of transposons. Evolutionary significance. (4)
4. Domestication, Plant introduction and acclimatization: Pattern of evolution in crop plants; Plant introduction; Germplasm collections; Purpose of plant introduction; Some important achievements of plant introduction; Acclimatization. (6)
5. Heterosis and inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression; Effects of inbreeding; Degrees of inbreeding depression; Homozygous and Heterozygous balance; Heterosis in cross and self-pollinated plants; Genetic basis of heterosis and inbreeding depression; Dominance hypothesis; Over-dominance hypothesis;Physiological basis of heterosis; Commercial applications. (6)
6. Distance hybridization and in-vitro techniques in plant breeding: Barriers to production of distant hybrids; interspecific and intergeneric hybridization and their application in crop improvement; embryo culture; Meristem; anther and pollen culture, achievements and future prospects; release of new varieties. (4)
7. Genetics and crossing techniques of some economically important crop plants ciz. Wheat, Rice, Maize and Cotton. (6)
1.Mitotic studies in Allium cepa.
2. Preparation of metaphase plate and camera lucida drawing in Allium cepa.
3.Karyotype analysis, drawing of idiogram and derivation of karyotypic formula in Allium cepa.
4. Meiotic studies in Rheo bicolor.
5. Centre of origin of some economically important crop plants.
6 Floral biology of some economically important crop plants.
7. Effect of chemical mutagen on growth and yield characteristics Brassica sp.
8. Crossing technique in Oryza sativa; Zea mays.
9. in vitro study of anther and pollen culture technique.
10. Induction of polyploidy in Ageratum conyzoides.
11. Cytological abnormalities due to chemical mutation.
12. Crossing techniques in Zea mays.
Reference Books
1. Ahluwalia K.B. (1985). Genetics. Wiley Eastern Ltd.
2. Berns M.W. (1986) Cells. Saunders College Publishing.
3. Burns G.W. & Bottino P.J. (1983). The Science of Genetics. Maxwell Mac Millan International.
4. Chaudhari H.K.(1984). Elementary principles of plant breeding. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company.
5. Dyansagar V.R. (1986). Cytology & Genetics. Tata Mc Graw- Hill Publishing Co.
6. Doods J.H. (1985) Plant Genetic Engineering. Cambridge University Press.
7. Poehlman J.M. & Borthakur D. (1969), Breeding Asian field crops.Oxford & IBM Pub. Company.
8. Sharma A. (1990). Chromosomes. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company.
9. Singh B.D. (1986). Plant Breeding. Kalyani Publishers.
10. Swanson C.P. Merz T & Young W.J. (1990). Cytogenetics. Prentice Hall of India.
11. Swanson C.P. & Webster P.L. (1989). The Cell. Printice Hall of India.
12. Sinha, U. & Sinha U. (1976) Cytogenetics, Plant Breeding and Evolution. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
13. Ganguly, A.K. & Kumar, N.C. (1991) an Introduction to cytology Genetics; Evolution & Plant Breeding. Em Kay Publications.
14. Chopra, V.L. (1989). Plant Breeding. Oxford Publications.
1. Laboratory practices and safety in laboratory: General safety measure, Chemical hazards, Physical hazards, Biological hazards, spillage and waste disposal, disposal of radio active waste, first aid.
2. pH and buffer solutions: SI units; Molarity and moles; Acids and base; Hydrogen ion concentration and pH, Dissociation of acids and bases; Buffer solutions.
3. Chromatography Techniques: General Principles and techniques, principle, application and material of column chromatography; Thin layer chromatography; Paper chromatography; Adsorption chromatography; Partition chromatography; (liquid-liquid chromatography); Gas-liquid chromatography; Ion exchange chromatography; Exclusion chromatography; Affinity chromatography; High performance liquid chromatography.
4. Electrophoresis Techniques: General principles; Principle, material and application of Isoelectric focusing, SDS - PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate); Isotachophoresis; Low and high voltage electrophoresis; Preparative Electrophoresis; Detection, recovery and estimation.
5. Spectroscopic Techniques; General principles; Radiation energy and atomic structure; Basic law of light absorption; Types of spectra and their biological usefulness. Principle, application and instrumentation of UV-VIS spectrophotometry; IR (infra-red) spectrophotometry; CD (circular dichoresim) spectrophotometry; Spectrofluorometry; Luminometry; Atomic/flame spectrophotometry; Mass spectrometry; ESR (electron spin resonance) and NMR (nuclear spin resonance).
6. Microscopy: Light matter interaction and its significance; Kohler illumination; Refraction, reflection, absorption, transmission, fluorescence, polarization, diffraction, Scanning and Transmission Electron microscopy, numerical aperture; depth of field and field of view; Video microscopy; Photomicrography: Resolution, illumination, optical system, cameras, films, focusing, exposure, photographic process, keeping and storing records.
7. Radiobiology: The nature of radioactivity; Atomic structure, stability and radiation; Isotopes; Types of radioactive decay; Detection and measurement of radioactivity; Geigermuller counter; Scintillation counter; Applications of radioisotopes in biological sciences; Safety aspects of use of radioisotopes.
8. Centrifugation Techniques: Basic principles of sedimentation; Centrifuge and their use; Small bench centrifuge; High speed refrigerated centrifuge; Continues flow centrifuge; Preparative ultracentrifuges; Analytical ultracentrifuges; Density gradient centrifugation; Preparative centrifugation; Design and care of rotors, safety aspects in the use of centrifuges.
9. Electrochemical Techniques; Principles and range of electrochemical techniques; pH electrode; Ion selective electrode; Oxygen electrode; Biosensors; Electrochemical detectors.
10. Microtomy and staining procedures
a). Porphyra as food: Cultivation and economics: Food and other uses, development of cultivation methods, present and future trends.
b). Cultivated edible kelps: Edible products, kelp composition,kelp production methods, world production
c). Food and food products from seaweeds.
d). Spirulina as human food: Nutritional aspects. Economic and environmental aspects. Theraupetic applications, Harvesting wild populations, village scale production.
e). Some public health aspects of microalgal products. Pheophorbide, Microbial contamination, Extraneous materials, metals, organic compounds, Maintaining sanitary quality.
3. Commercial production and application of algae: Hydrocoloids History, Chemistry production and Application, future aspects of ginatesCarrageenans, Agars.
4. Lipids and polyols from microalgae History of microalgal lipid production research, Triacylglycerots, Hydrocarban, algal solar energy conversion, carotenoids Polyols.
5. Microalgae in liquid waste treatment and reclamation. Biological waste treatment system, Design consideration (Algal concentration, algal productivity) Operation of integrated algal bacterial system, current application, future application (Sewage grown algae, energy system, toxin removal, integrated feedlots).
6. Hydrogen production by algae: water splitting Role of algae in hydrogen production, principles of photosynthetic hydrogen production, Biophotolysis of water.
7. Products from fossil algal: Diatomite-industrial mineral, Calcareous algae, Algal organics and Biostratography: algal kerogen in petroleum and coal, Biosstratiography.f). Algae & Agriculture: Free living cyanobacteria and algalization, Azolla, Microalgal soil conditioners, Microalgal plant growth regulation, Seaweed use in agriculture and horticulture
a. Marine dinoflagellates blooms: dynamics and impacts: Bloom dynamics: Initiation, growth, Maintenance, Termination, Ecological and Economic impacts: Negative & Positive impacts.
b. Hazards of freshwater blue green algae (cyanobacteria) Neurotoxins, Hepatotoxins, other toxins, Medicinal aspects; Human poisoning, contact dermititis
c. Marine biofouling: Bacterial, Microalgal & Macroalgal biofouling, control treatments; antifouling coatings. Recent improvements in chemical control Methodology, Biological control, Non-adhesive surfaces.
1. Algae in space: Algae and life support systems; Algae and planetarybiology, Future of algae in space. B. Genetic improvement: Progress and Prospects: Classical plant breeding, Molecular genetics; characterisation of organelles DNA, Tissue cells and protoplasts.
1. Dawson E.Y. 1966 Marine Botany.
2. Lobban C.S. 1985. The Physiological ecology of Seaweeds.
3. Lewin K.W.J.C. 1962. Physiology and Biochemistry of Algae.
4. Lembi C.A. 1988. Algae and human affairs.
5. Related Research Articles.
1. Techniques in Mycology:-
The fungal dimension of global biodiversity; the characteristics of diverse fungal habitats; fungi in terrestrial, marine and freshwater habitats; fungi in the tropical ecosystems; fungi in extreme environment. Role of fungi in the ecosystem functioning and fungi as bio-indicators of pollution.
Techniques in fungal ecology and taxonomy; sampling, collection, isolation and maximum recovery of fungi from different habitats; baiting, moist-chamber and particle plating techniques; formulation, composition and characteristics of different fungal media; isolation, maintenance and preservation of pure cultures of fungi; fungal taxonomy and nomenclature; biological studies, effect of pH, temp., light and humidity, fungal growth in liquid media; batch, continuous and phased culture & their application in industry. (10)
2. Systematics and physiology of Fungi:
Fungal systematics; identification techniques; Nomenclature, taxonomy and classification; numerical and computer taxonomy; Chemo- and molecular taxonomy; molecular markers, fungal isozymes; the fungal holomorph; fungal cultural characters on solid and in liquid media; fungal morphotypes and their microscopic and enzymological characterisation; fungal gene banks; culture collections and mycological databases. (8)
3. Economic uses of fungi.
Production and utilization of fungal biomass; fungi as food and feeds; Industrial fungal strains, principles of fermenter design and operation; Bakers and industrial yeast; Edible fungi; Myco-proteins.
Advancement in mushroom cultivation technology; Commercial mushroom species and their strain improvement and cultivation; Edible tropical mushrooms and their cultivation; mushroom spawns; nutritional aspects of mushroom. (8)
4. Industrial uses of fungi.
Fungal constituents and metabolites and their industrial utilisation; useful fungal polysacharides and enzymes; fungal secondary metabolism; classification of fungal metabolites; fungal quinones, hormones, steroids, mycotoxins; lichen chemicals.
Bioactive compounds from fungi and their industrial potential; fermentation technology for antibiotics; production of organic acid; current trends in fungal biotechnology. (8)
5. Fungi as pathogens:
Fungi in phyllosphere and phylloplane; Post-harvest diseases of perishable and durable produces; market pathology and management; Diseases of nurseries and forest trees; diseases of agro- and farm forestry; fungi as biodeteriorating agents in tropics; economic losses due to fungal decomposition; nematode-trappers; fungi as human and animal pathogens; fungicides and their action. (8)
6. Fungi in agriculture:
Endophytic, rhizosphere and soil fungi; Mycorrhizae; Ecto and endomycorrhizae; isolation and culturing; Biofertilizers; Application in agriculture and forestry; Soil-born pathogens; Fungal biopesticides. (6)

1. Plant Tissue Culture: A brief history of plant tissue culture; chronology of important developments in plant tissue culture; General Techniques; Laboratory Organisation; Media Composition and Preparation, Aseptic Manipulation; Cell Cultures (including Bergmann's plating technique); Application of cell culture (Mutant selection, production of secondary metabolites, transformations).
2. Micropropagation and somaclonal variation: Clonal propagation or micropropagation; Mechanism of somaclonal variation, Role of somaclonal variation in plant breeedig; Applications.
3. Germplasm conservation and cryopreservation : Modes of Conservation; Cryopreservation of plant cell cultures and its prospects in agricultural and forest biotechnology.
4. Production and uses of Haploids: Production of haploids (anther culture, ovule culture, bulbosum technique), detection of haploids (morphology, genetic markers); uses of haploids; Pollen as a tool in crop improvement; Pollen storage; Effect of radiation on pollen.
5. Protoplast culture, regeneration and somatic hybridization:Isolation of protoplasts, Purification of protoplasts, viability and plating density of protoplast; protoplast culture and regeneration of plants; protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization, Cytoplasmic hybrids or cybrids, genetic modification of protoplasts.
6. Transgenic Plants:Transgenic plants for crop important; transgenic plant for molecular farming; transgenic plants to study regulated gene expression.
7. Gene transfer methods in plants:Target cells for transformation, vector for gene transfer. Gene transfer method using Agrobacterium; selectable and scorable markers (reporter genes), agroinfection and gene transfer, DNA mediated gene transfer (DMGT)
Principles and basic concepts of Remote Sensing. Physics of Remote Sensing. Optical versus microwave remote sensing. Effects of Atmosphere; spectral oceanic features in different wavelength regions of EMR. History of space imaging - Characteristics of space platforms: LANDSAT, SPOT, IRS, SEASAT, ERS, MOS, RADARSAT; characteristics of sensors: MSS, TM, LISS I & II, SPOT, CZCS, NOASS-AVHRR. Techniques of digital interpretation. Principles and advantages of Multispectral data analysis.
Basic principles of Thermal and microwave Remote sensing. Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Image Rectification, Enhancement and Mosaicing. Geographic Information System (GIS).
Application of Remote Sensing - specific case studies with examples.
Principles of Air Photo interpretation in forestry and ecology. Identification, mapping and measurement of vegetation types. Principles of Multispectral Sensing for Vegetation Mapping. Spectral response of Vegetation and factors affecting the spectral response. Tree species identification and Forest type stratification.
Principles of Remote sensing in structural and functional analysis of vegetation. Ecosystem analysis, Environmental Impact Analysis and Monitoring. Change detection and monitoring.
Estimation and measurement of tree and stand height, crown diameter, crown count, crown density, volume and area. Quantitative estimation of biomass and other ecological parameters.
Principles of Remote sensing in Land use/Land cover Mapping and Agriculture. Preparation of base maps and transfer of interpreted data on base maps. Ground data collection and sampling techniques. Forest inventory data.
Land evaluation for Forestry. Forest Resource Management.
1. Stereo test and study of different types of aerial photos.
2. Tracing details from stereopairs.
3. Visual interpretation of various Satellite data products on different scales.
4. Spectroradiometer observations to measure reflectance characteristics.

Botany and Forestry
1. Identification of tree species on aerial photographs and satellite data.
2. Forest cover type stratification and delineation on aerial photographs and satellite data.
3. Interpretation of multispectral data with additive colour viewer.
4. Estimation and evaluation of crown density (crown closure) on aerial photographs by (a) comparison, (b) sampling and (c) occular estimation.
5. Measurement of tree height and crown diameter on aerial photographs.
1. Physical principles of Remote Sensing - Rees, W.G. Cambride University press, Cambridge, 1990.
2. Remote Sensing Optics and Optical systems - Slater P. N. Addision - Wesley Publishing Co. 1980.
3. Remote Sensing and Interpretation - Lillesand T. M. and Kiefer R. W. - II Edition, John Wiley and Sons-1987.
4. Remote Sensing Principles and Interpretation - Floyd and F. Sabnis, JR : II Edition, W. H. Freeman and Co., N. Yor 1987.
5. Theory and Application of Optical Remote Sensing. Astar G. John Wiley and Sons, 1989.
6. Remote Sensing methods and applications : I lord R. Michel. John Wiley & Sons.
7. Advance Remote Sensing from Theory to Applications: Vol I, II & III: F. T. Ulaby.
8. Sharma, M.K. Remote Sensing and Forest Surveys. International Book Distributors, Dehradun, 1986.
9. Barrett, E.C. Introduction to environmental Remote Sensing, Chapman & Hall, 1982.
10. Hush, Betram; Forest Mensuration, John Wiley & Sons, 1982.
11. Steven M. D; clark J. A. Applications of Remote Sensing in Agriculture; Bulterqorths, Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent TN15PH, UK, 1990.
12. Deepak, Adarsh. Applications of Remote Sensing for rice production. A Deepak publishing, 1984.
1. Types of Plant-Animal interactions: Mutualism, Antagonism, Commensalism, Competetion, Multi-trophic level interactions; Evolution of interactions; principle of allocation.
2. Pollination Biology: Importance of cross pollination. Special differentiation associated with pollinator attraction - advertisement and reward (pollen. Nectar, elaiophores, resin glands, osmophores, optical displays and visual clues). Floral adaptation to different pollinators; insect visitors (Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Thysanoptera), birds, bats, non-flying animals. Sapromyiophily, brrod-site pollination. Pollination biology and gene flow: foraging theory, foraging strategies and time-niche strategies.
3. Fruits, Seeds and Dispersal agents: Fruit chemistry (chemical compartmentalization - pulp and seed, nutritional aspect of pulp, palatability inhibitors and toxins). Seed coat, seed toxins. Phenology; signals, fruit size and fruit production. Dispersers: range of seed dispersers, frugivores as foragers. Seed shadow; seed predators.
4. Herbivores and green plants: Nutritional considerations; herbivore efficiency and ecosystem dynamics; ecological effects of herbivores on plant populations and communities. Co-evolutionary arms race - plant defence and animal response.
5. Ant-plant interactions: The varieties of ant-plant symbioses. Mutualism and non-mutualism (herbivores, harvesting ants, granivores). Effects of harvesters on vegetation. Fungus growers.
6. Carnivorous plants: Mechanisms of interaction between carnivorous plants and animals, trap mechanisms; nutritional benefits of carnivory, cost-benefit analysis. Evolutionary pathways to carnivory.
7. Hormonal interaction between plants and animals; animal pheromones and defence substances.
8. Plant communities as animal habitats: Adaptations, ecological segregation within and between habitats; mechanisms of habitat selection, habitat selection theory, characterestics of plant resources and animal population dynamics, effects of plants on animal spacing and aggression. Animal diversity in relation to plant resource characteristics.
9. Plant-animal interactions in agricultural ecosystems.
Abrahamson, W.G. (ed.), 1989. Plant-animal interactions. McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY.
Crawley, M.J. 1986. Plant Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Endress,P.K.1994.Diversityand Evolutionary biology of tropical flowers. Cambridge University Press.
Harborne, J.B. 1988. Introduction to ecological biochemistry. Academic press.
Holldobler, B. & Wilson, E.O. 1990. The Ants. Springer-Verlag.
Lloyd, D.G. & Barret, S.C.H., 1996. Floral Biology: studies on Floral evolution in Animal pollinated plants. Chapman & Hall.
Proctor, M., Yeo, P. & Lack, A. 1996. The Natural History of Pollination. Harper Collins Publishers.
Richards, A.J. 1986. Plant Breeding systems. George Allen & Unwin, London.
Smith, R.L. 1990. Ecology and field biology. Harper Collins publishers.
Van der Pijl, L. 1969. Principles of dispersal in Higher plants. Springer-Verlag.
Whitmore, T.C. 1990. An introduction to tropical rain forests. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
TECHNOLOGY (48-50 hrs.)
Photosynthesis and Bioproductivity:
Plant growth analysis: Basic principles and classical growth analysis
Plant microclimate: Radiation, temperature, humidity, wind, plant water and soil status, canopy structure, shoot morphology and leaf anatomy and productivity.
Measurement of carbon dioxide assimilation by plants in the field and laboratory; Infra-red gas analysis, 14C incorporation etc.
Measurement of oxygen evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence; measurements of oxygen evolution for studying electron transport in isolated chloroplasts and mitochondria and other photoautotrophic. Chloraophyll fluorescence measurement and its interpretation.
Carbon metabolism: Assay of some enzymes of carbon reduction cycle.
Nitrogen metabolism: Measurement of nitrogen fixation by direct means and indirect assay of nitrogenase activity, assimilatory nitrogen reduction and determination of enzymatic activities, Ammonia assimilation.
Algae: Laboratory techniques and out door biomass production.
Measurement of PLANT biomass and net primary production: Sampling; Design; measuring of above ground and below ground biomass; non-destructive measurement of biomass, estimation of stem and leaf dimension and remote sensing.
Post harvest technology:
Post harvest technology (harvesting, collection, storage, transport and product preparation ) in
1. Plantation crop (Coconut),
2. Fruit crop (Mango, Jackfruit and Kokkum),
3. Spices (black pepper, cloves, cardamon, cinnmon, ginger and turmeric),
4. Ornamental and (e) Vegetable plants.
1. Introduction to Basis cytology and Histology - Cells and tissues and microorrganisms.
2. General Techniques: The chemistry and practice of fixation; whole mounts; sections- cryo and ultra-microtomy; freeze-drying of biological tissue.
3. Cyto and Histochemistry with bright-field Microscopy; Localization of various biogenic components such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, phenolie compounds, lignins, cutins, suberin, waxes, minerals such as calcium, potassium, irons, other metals and metabolities using optical bbrightness in various biologiccal specimens.
4. Cyto and Histochemistry with Polarized-light Microscopy: Study of structure and components of cell wall using an-isotropic material.
5. Cyto and Histochemistry with Fluorescence Microscopy: Auto-fluorescence in biological material; Flouro chromes; Excitation filters; Localisation of phytins, proteins, lysine rich proteins, lipids, nucleric acids, phenolic compounds, lignins and cutins in various biological tissue using fluorchromes. FITC-bound dextrins and vasacular tissue specific fluorochromes in biology. Study of cell membranes, connective tissues, protoplasts and infected materials.
6. Cyto and Histochemistry with Electron Microscopy; Specimen preparation for TEM and Sem.
7. Enzyme Histochemistry: Esterases; phosphates and other enzymes.
8. Photomicrography: Basic techniques of image capture, record, analysis wit bright filed, polarization, dark-field and fluorescence attachments. Chemistry, exposure time, films and filters. Processing, preparation of slide for presentation, use of computers and image analysis software and Vedio-micrography.. Field and Macro-photography.
9. Cyto and Histochemistry and its Application: Understanding the biology and structure of microorganisms, fungi, algae, medicinal and other economically important plants and animals. Applications of such techniques in diagnostic and analytical sciences and biotechnology.
1. Study of auto-fluorescence in biological specimens using UV, Violet, Green and Blue excitation filters.
2. Understanding of distribution of proteins in biological specimens using fluorescent and non-fluorescent dyes.
3. Localization of lipids in biological specimens using fluorescent and non-fluorescent dyes.
4. Study of cell wall structure using the specific fluorochrome calcufluor white under fluorescence microscopy.
5. Study of distribution of starch in biological specimens.
6. Micro-photography with bright-field, dark-field, polarization and fluorescence microscopy and macro-photography.
7. Study of standard microbiota - gram positive , negative bacteria, fungi, algae, protozon and their cytochemistry.
8. Examination of normal and diseased animal/human tissues.
9. Basic of Image analysis software.
1. Pears, A.G.E.1980. Histochemistry Theoretical and Applied, Preparative and Optical Techniques. Vol. I. Fourth Edition. Churchill Livingstone. London and New York.
2. Pears, A.G.E. 1985. Histochemistry Teoretical and Applied. Analytical Technology. Vol. II Churchill Livingstone. London and New York.
3. Tibor Barka, M.D., Paul, J. Anderson, M.D. 1963. Histochemistry Theory, Practice and Bibiliography. Hoebert Medical division, Harper & Row Publications, New York and London.
4. Krishnamurthy, K.V. 1988, Methods in Plant Histochemistry. S. Viswanthan (Printers & Publishers) PVT. LTD., Chennai.
5. Conn. H.J. 1977. Biological Stains. R. D. Lillie (Ed>) The Williams and Wilkins Co., Reprinted by Sigma Chemical Company, USA.
6. Clark, G. 1981. Staining procedures, Williams and Wilkins,Baltimore.
7. Jensen, W.A. 1962. Botanical Histochemistry Principles and Practice. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.
8. Hayat, M.A. 1986. Basic Techiques for Transmission Electron Microscopy. Academic Press. London and New York.
1. Horticulture and its relation to agriculture, agronomy and forestry. History and
importance of horticulture in food, medicine, spice, ornamental and trade economy. (3)
1. Plants of horticultural important families of plants as sources of vegetables, fruits and ornamentals. Classification of plants as annuals, biannuels and prennels; herbs, shrubs, vines, climbers, trees and evergreens. (4)
2. Growth and Development: Seed dormancy, viability and germination. Vegetative and reproductive growth of plants. Native and synthetic hormones and other growth regulators, their importance in horticulture, gardening and landscaping. (4)
3. Environment and Plant Growth: Climatic factors and their effects on plant growth and development. Importance of water, temperature and light quality and quantity. Greenhouse and other plant growing-structure. (4)
4. Soils and mineral requirements: Nature and importance of soil, different types of soil. Sterile soil mixtures (vermiculite, perlite etc. Hydrophonics). Different types of organic manure’s and inorganic fertilizers. Importance of macro and micronutritients in plants growth and development. (4)
5. Propagation of plants: Vegetative propagation of stem, leaf and root cuttings. Propagation by division andlayerings, bulbs, corms, tubers and rhizomes, budding and grating. Production of seeds, their certification, storage and germplasm collection. (6)
6. Important vegetables and fruits, their countries of origin cultivation and importance in Indian economy. Nutritive value of vegetables, greens and fruits cultivation of spices and medicinal plants. Cultivation of mushrooms. (5)
7. Pests and Diseases: Viral, mycoplasmic, Bacterial and fungal pathogens and isect and pest of horticultural plants. Biological control and integrated pest management. (4)
8. Gardens and Gardening: Design of gardens for vegetable and fruit-plant cultivation. Flower gardening. Special maethods of ornamental cultures such as hanging baskets, bottle and terrarium gardening, roof, rock and water gardens. Bonsai and topiary. (6)
9. Aesthetics of horticulture: Elements and principles of design and landscape artchitecture formal and informal gardens of the world in general and India in particular. Flower beds, borders, lawns, hedges, edges and topiary. (6)
11. Irrigation: Advanced irrigation system such as drip, microtube and sprinkle systems. (2)
1. A knowledge of tools, techniques and terminologies of horticulture such as rake, hoe, spade, trowel, digger, shoval, pick-axe, mamti, plantlet, budding, staking, mulching, thinaing, proning, and grafting.
2. A knowledge of local claimatic conditions and planting seasons of horticultural plants.
3. Preparation by cutting and layering. Use of auxin for rooting and grafting.
4. Planing and planting a vegetable garden with local seasonal vegetabls. Maintenance of a record of their growth.
5. A knowledge of common vegetables, fruits and flowers of India, and their countries of origin. Wild edible plants of seeds, plants, chemicals and equipment for horticulture.
6. Observation of common diseases and insects pests of horticultural plants around Goa. Knowledge of common herbicides, fungicides and insecticides locally available.
7. Field trips, when possible to places of horticultural gardens and landscaping areas and studios.
8. Hedge plants of Goa.
9. Ornamental flowering plants of Goa.
10. Foliage plants of Goa.
11. Ferns of Goa.
12. Flowers sold in Goa.
13. Vegetables of Goa market and their origin.
14. Botanical garden in Goa.
15. Common wild edible plants around us.
16. Collection and identification of 10 insect pests of horticultural plants.
17. Caning of vegetables and fruits.
18. Any other topic approved by the course teacher.
1. ADAMS, C.R. , K.M. BANFORD AND M.P. EARLY. 1990. Principles of Horticulture, Butternorth Heineman Ltd. London.
2. GORNER, R. 1978. The growth of gardens. Faber and Faber. London
3. GRAF, A.B. 1981. Tropica, 2nd edition, Rohers Co. USA.
4. HARIMAN, H.T. and D.F. KESTLER. 1976. Plant propagation: Principles and practicals.
5. Prentice & Hall of India. New Delhi.
6. KUMAR, N. 1986. Introduction to Horticulture. Rajalakshmi Publication. Nagerkoil,
7. Tamil Nadu.
8. MOORE, R. & W.D. CLARK.1995. Botany: Plant form &function, Vol.1.W.M.C.Brown
9. Publisher.
10. RANDHAWA and A. MUKHOPADYAY. 1982. Floriculture in India. Allied Pub. Pvt.
11. Ltd. New Delhi.
12. RANJIT, S. 1992. Fruits. 2nd National Book Trust. New Delhi.
13. RAO, K.M. 1991. Text book of Horticulture. MacMillan India Ltd. New Delhi.
14. 10.TORRES, C. K. 1989. Tissue culture techniques for horticulturalcrops. Van Nostrand
15. Reinheld. New York.
16. Commercial Floriculture in Goa. Agricultural Officer’s Association – Goa. 2002.
17. Manual of Gardening. Agricultural Officer’s Association – Goa. 1997.
18. Agribusiness Opportunities in Goa. Agricultural Officer’s Association – Goa. 2000.
19. Kitchen Garden Manual. Agricultural Officer’s Association – Goa. 2000.
BOO-10: SEED TECHNOLOGY (48-50 hrs.)
1. History of seed technology and seed health testing; development of seed technology in India and its importance to agriculture.
2. Seed health testing procedures; Objectives; ISTA rules - perscriptions and recommendations; sampling - type of samples, equipment, intensity and storage; Seed purity- physical purity and analysis, genetic purity and determination (laboratory and growing on tests): seed moisture content & effects, methods to determine moisture content; Seed germination - Viability & germination tests; seedling vigour; salient features of seed health; seed - borne fungi, bacteria, viruse and ematode diseases and their control.
3. Morphology and anatomy of seed. Exomorphic characters, gross internal morphology; structure and development of seed coat in main groups of angiosperms; classification based on seed coat characters, identificaation and structure of seed of important field crops.
4. Seed production: Principles; seed production in self- pollinated, cross-pollinated and vegetratively propagated- crops; Hyploid seed production; maintenance of inbred lines and breeders seeds; germplasm or seed banks; life span of seed varieties and factors responsible for their deterioration; Seed harvesting; Separation, cleaning and upgrading of seeds with informations on the equipments used.
5. Seed storage: Principles & methods of sea seed storage, types of storage structures, factors affecting storage life, effects of storage environments on seed longevity, seed deteriortion in storage and its control :Aflatoxins.
6. Physiology and Biochemistry of seed germination: Seed maturation, food reserve, imbibition, mobilization of food reserves, germination & growth factors affecting germination.
7. Seed dormancy & longevity: Dormancy - Significance, types, causes, control & release of dormancy; longevity ife span at seed, factor affecting longevity, biochemical cytological effects of longevity.
8. Seed certification: definitions, development of seed certification concept, minimum seed certification standards - general & specific crop standards; field nspection, ISTA certificates.
9. The seed Act of India (1966) & seed Rule (1968) with ammendments; Limitation of the act.
10. National seed Programme; National seed corporation; Seed Industry in India agencies responsible for achieving self reliance in production & supply of quantity seed (State farms Co-operation, State seed Cooperations, National seed development Council. Central Seed Committee).
Principles of seed science & technology by copeland, L.O. 1976.
Viability of seeds by Robert.
Principles of angiosperm taxonomy by Davis, P.H. and Heywood, V.H.
Outlines of biochemistry by Conn E.E. & Stimpf P.K.
The physiology & biochemistry of seed development, dormancy and germination by Khan A.A. 1982. 6. The germination of seed by Mayer A and Poljakoff-Mayber A. A. 1982.
Seed by Kozlowski. Vols I & II.