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SYLLABUS OF COMPULSORY PAPERS
BOC-01: ALGAE, BRYOPHYTA, PTERIDOPHYTA AND GYMNOSPERMS
1. General characteristics and classification of algae (2 Lect.)
2. Comparative account of following groups: (within & between) a)Chlorophycophyta; b) Charophyta c) Euglenophycophyta; d)Phaeophycophyta; e)Chrysophycophyta, f) Pyrrhophycophyta; g) Cryptophycophyta; and h)Rhodophycophyta.
3. Phylogeny and interrelationships of algae.
4. Fossil algae
BRYOPHYTA: (9 Lect.)
1. General characteristics and classification of Bryophyta.
2. Comparative features of following groups. (within & between) Hepaticopsida; , Anthocerotopsida; Bryopsida
3. Origin of bryophytes; gametophyte and it's evolution; Sporophyte and its evolution.
4. Fossil Bryophytes.
5. Economic importance of Bryophyta
PTERIDOPHYTA (9 Lect.)
1. General characteristics and classification of pteridophyta.
2. Comparative account of following groups: (within & between) a) Psilophyta, b) Lycophyta , c) Equisetophyta , d) Filicophyta
3. Soral evolution stelar evolution, Apospory and Apogamy
4. 4. Fossil Pteridophytes; Heterospory and seed habit; Economic importance of pteridophytes.
GYMNOSPERMS: (9 Lect.)
1. General characteristics of gymnosperms and classification; economic importance of gymnosperms.
2. Comparative account of following groups (within & between) gymnosperms. a)Progymnospermopsida, b) Gymnospermopsida. c) Gnetopsida
3. Fossil gymnosperms a brief account.
1. Study of fresh water and marine phytoplanktons. 2. Study of Economically important algae. 3. Preservation of marine algae. 4. Preparation of permanent slides for algae.5. Vegetative and reproductive features of important algal groups. 6. Vegetative and reproductive features of important group of Bryophyta. 7. Vegetative and reproductive features of important groups of Pteridophyta. 8. Study of Sporangia in ferns.9. Vegetative and reproductive features of important Gymnosperms groups.10. Field visits for collection of algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms.. 11. Visit to Institute / Museum.
1. BOLD H.C. and Wynee M.J. 1978. Introduction to the algae; Structure and reproduction. Prentice Hall, Englewood cliffs, New Jersey.
2. Chapman V.J. and Chapman D.J/ 1975. The algae, 2nd Edition, Mac. Millan Publ. Inc. New York.
3. Chapman V.J. and Chapman D.J. 1980. Seaweeds and their uses 3rd Edition, Chapman and Hall, London.
4. Dodge J.D. 1973, The fine structure of algal cells, Academic Press, New Delhi.
5. Fritech F.E. 1835. The structure and reproduction of the algae. Vol. II, University Press Cambridge 939 pp.
6. Fritech F.E. 1945. The structure and reproduction of the algal Vol. I. University Press, Cambridge 791 pp.
7. Prescott G.W. 1981. Algae: A review. Thomas Nelson and Sons.
8. Round F.E. 1981. The Ecology of Algae, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
9. Smith G.M. 1955. Cryptogamic Botany. Vo. I & II. Algae and Fungi, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hill, New York.
10. Trainor F.R. 1978. Introductory Phycology, Wiley & Sons. New York.
11. Vashishta B.R. 1988. Algae. S. Chand & Co., New Delhi.
12. Cavera. F. 1910. Interrelationships of Bryophyta, New Phytol 10: 1-46, 84-86.
13. Parihar N.S. 1967. An introduction of embryophyta. Vol.I Central Book Depot, Allahabad.
14. Udar R. an introduction to Bryophyta.
15. Waston E.V. 1971. Structure and life of Bryophyta. Third Edition, Hutchinson and Co. London.
16. Eames. A.J. 1936. Morphology of Vascular plants. Lower group Mc Graw Hill, New York.
17. Rashidl A. 1986. An introduction to pteridophytes. Vani Educational book, N.D.C.
18. Sporne K.R. 1976. Morphology of Pteridophytes. Hutchinson University, Library London.
19. Surange K.R. 1966. Indian Fossil pteridophytes C.S.I.R., New Delhi.
20. Verdon F.R. Mannual of Pteridology.
21. Chamberiain C.J. 1986. Gymnosperm structure and Evolution. C.B.S. Publishers and Distributors.
22. Coulter J.M. and Chamberiain C.J. 1917. Morphology of Gymnosperms. University of Chicago Press.
23. Foster and Gifford. Coparative morphology of Vascular plants. Vakils, Feffer and Simoris Ltd.
24. Ramanujan C.K.G. Indian Gymnosperms in time and space. Today & Tomorrow’s Printers & Publishers.
25. Sporne, K.R. 1965, Morphology of Gymnosperms Hutchinson University Library.
BOC-02: FUNGI, BACTERIA, VIRUSES & PLANT PATHOLOGY
General characteristics of Fungi; Comparative account of morphology, physiological specialization, reproduction and phylogenetic affinities major groups; Structural, functional and ecological specialization of fungal mycelia and spores; Taxonomy and nomenclature; Modern trends in classification; Fungal biodiversity.
Study of the following groups with suitable native examples: Myxomycotina, Mastigomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina.
Brief reference to economic importance of fungi; Ecto- and endo-mycorrhizae; Ericoid and Orchid mycorrhizae; edible and poisonous Mushrooms; Lichens; Yeasts; Fungal cultures; Fungal bioprospecting; Secondary metabolites; Industrial significance; Fungi in food processing, production of enzymes, alcohols, antibiotics and pharmacetuticals; Mycotoxins in food and feed; Fungi as biocontrol agents. (12)
Morphology and fine structure; Chemical composition of bacterial cell; Classification and Nomenclature; Economic importance in relation to biological nitrogen-fixation, antibiotics and enzymes; (4)
Structure and importance of Mycoplasma and L-forms. (1)
Morphology, chemical composition, ultrastructure, replication, classification and nomenclature of Plant Viruses; The virus cryptogram; Transmission of Plant Viruses; Virus-Vector relationship; Control of Plant Viruses; Viroids and Prions. (3)
A brief account of history of plant pathology in India. Symptomatology in fungal, bacterial and viral diseases of plants; Obligate and facultative pathogens.
Classification of plant diseases, methods in the study of plant diseases; Koch Postulates; Principles of pathogen penetration and infection and spread of disease; Source of inoculum; Host-Parasite interaction; Role of enzymes and toxins in pathogenesis; Susceptability and resistance; Epidemiology and disease forecasting; Control of crop diseases by cultural, physical, chemical and biological methods; Resistant varieties; Crop rotation; Plant quarantine; Seed certification; (6)
Post-harvest and market pathology.
Diseases of cereals, pulses, vegetables, oil-seed crops, fruit plants, and plantation crops; Mycoplasma, protozoan and nemetode diseases, etiology, epidemiology and management of following crop diseases: Paddy: blast, brown leaf-spot, sheath blight, bacterial leaf blight and tungro Virus; Jowar: smut by Sphacelotheca sorghi and S. cruenta; Sugarcane: red rot; Groundnut - tikka; Cotton - \wilt; Coconut - leaf blight, wilt, yellowing; Banana - Leaf spot, bunchy-top disease; Mango - powdery mildew, sooty mould. (8)
1. Study of microbiological laboratory techniques; Preparation of agar culture media; Sterilization; Isolation and culturing of fungi and bacteria; Colony characters; Microscopic observations; Mounting fluids; Morphology of hyphae and spores or reproductive structures of different genera of fungi.
2. Observation of different fungal substrates on sterile moist chamber incubation (e.g. herbivore dung; decomposing leaf-litter); Observations on ecological succession of fungi; Terrestrial, marine and freshwater fungi.
3. Serial dilution technique (e.g. soil, dung and leaf-litter); Qualitative and quantitative estimation of fungi from different habitats.
4. Collection of infected specimens in the field; Observation of symptoms; Laboratory studies; Hand sections and tease mounts; Study of as many as possible viral, bacterial and fungal diseases of crop plants from surrounding fields in Goa.
5. Bacterial staining by using Gram stain.
6. Isolation of Rhizobium from root nodule of leguminous plant.
7. Observations on enzyme and antibiotic production in fungi and actinomycetes
8. Submission of 10 dried herbarium specimens of infected plant materials collected from nearby habitats and 5 pure cultures of different fungi on slants isolated from various substrates.
AINSWORTH, G.C., HAWKSWORTH, D.L. AND SUTTON, B.C. 1988. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of Fungi (8th Edition). Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, U.K.
AINSWORTH, G.C. AND SUSSMAN, A.S.(Ed.) 1965-1973). The Fungi: An Advanced treatise. vol.I. The Fungal Cell; vol.II. The Fungal Organism. vol.III. The Fungal Population. Academic Press, London.
AINSWORTH, G.C., SPARROW, F.K. AND SUSSMAN, F.K. 1973. The Fungi. an Advanced Tretise. Vol I-IV B. Academic Press, New York.
ALEXOPOULOS, C.J. 1973. Introductory Mycology. John Wiley, New York ALEXOPOULOS, C.J and Mims. 1979. Introductory Mycology.
BURNETT, J.H. 1976. Fundamentals of Mycology. Arnold, London.
BUTLER, E.J. 1918. Fungi and Diseases in Plants. Thacker Spink & Co., Calcutta.
DUBE, H.C. 1983. An Introduction to Fungi. Vikas, New Delhi.
HAWKSWORTH, D.L. 1974. Mycologist's Handbook. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, England.
JOHNSTON,A AND BOOTH,C. 1983. Plant Pathologist's Pocket Book. ommonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, England.
KENDRICK, B. 1992. The Fifth Kingdom. Focus Information Groups, Inc., Canada
KENDRICK, B. 1979. The Whole Fungus. National Museums of Canada. tawa
MAHADEVAN, A. 1982. Biochemical aspects of Plant Disease
Resistance. Part I. Today and Tomorrow, New Delhi.
MEHROTRA, R.S. Plant Pathology.
RANGASWAMY, G. 1988. Diseases of Crop Plants in India. Prentice--Hall of India, Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi.
SINGH, R.S. Plant Disease.
WEBSTER, J. 1980. Introduction to Fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
BOC-03: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF SYSTEMATIC BOTANY
1. Scope and importance of taxonomy; taxonomy as a synthetic discipline. (1)
2. Theories on origin and evolution of angiosperms; evolutionary trends in floral parts. (3)
3. Principles and broad outline of Bentham & Hooker’s and Cronquist's systems of classification; salient features and phylogeny of subclasses of Cronquist's system of classification. (2)
4. Exomorphological characters as the basis of taxonomy; contribution from the fields of morphology, anatomy, palynology and embryology to taxonomy. (4)
5. Cytotaxonomy: Chromosomal information - Taxonomic evidences from the number, structure and behaviour of chromosomes. (2)
6. Biosystematics: scope and significance; principles and procedures; relationship between experimental and classical taxonomy; experimental categories. (2)
7. Phytogeography and taxonomy: Patterns of geographical distribution, disjunction, vicariance, endemism and their relevance to plant taxonomy. (2)
8. Phenetic methods in taxonomy (Taxometrics) - Principles, hierarchic clustering procedures and ordination methods, computer programs used; limitations in application. (2)
9. Cladistics: Plesiomorphous and apomorphous characters; homologous and analogous characters; homoplasy; monophyly, polyphyly and paraphyly; parsimony and maximum liklihood methods in cladistics; computer programmes available; cladistics and classification. (2)
10. Secondary metabolites and taxonomy: Use of various phytochemical data in systematics with special reference to secondary metabolites; techniques used in systematics with special significance to secondary metabolites. (2)
11. Proteins and taxonomy: Importance of seed proteins in plant taxonomy; use of electrophoresis, aminoacid sequencing, serotaxonomy, allozyme and isozyme variations in plant taxonomy. (2)
12. Nucleic acids in taxonomy: Contributions from molecular biological techniques (RFLP, AFLP, DNA hybridization, sequencing, G+C content, PCR and RAPD) to plant taxonomy. (2)
13. The laboratories of taxonomic study: Field studies - importance and techniques; Herbarium - importance, techniques, maintenance and important herbaria of India and the world; Botanic Gardens - Role of Botanic Gardens; important gardens of India and the World. (4)
14. Keys and identification: Purpose, types (dichotomous and multiple entry keys); do's and dont's of key construction; computerized key construction. (2)
15. Botanical Nomenclature: ICBN; principles, rules and recommendations pertaining to publication, priority and typification; author(s) citation; important terminologies in nomenclature; application of ICBN.
16. Concept of taxa: Concept of species (nominalistic, taxonomic, biological, phylogenetic), genus and infraspecific taxa. (1)
17. Taxonomic literature: Significance and importance; Important Floras, Revisions, Monographs, Icones, General reference books and periodicals. (2)
18. Prospects of taxonomy - biodiversity and conservation priorities. IUCN Redlist categories; threatened taxa of Western Ghats. (2)
1.Phytography - description of specimen.
2. Construction of dichotomous indented and bracketed keys.
3.Identification of local plant species and their families.
4.Study of diagnostic characters of locally available families.
5.Numerical taxonomy of closely related species using computer.
6.Cladistics of small group using computer programs.
7.Interpretation of flavonoid data for taxonomy using PC\TLC.
8.Study of flora by undertaking field trips.
9.Study of different vegetation types and analyzing the difference in their floristic composition.
10.Visit to a major herbaria/ botanic garden/ major taxonomic centre.
Ahmedullah, M. & M.P. Nayar. 1987. Endemic Plants of the Indian Region. Vol.1. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah.
Benson,L.D. 1962. Plant Taxonomy: Methods and Principles. Ronald Press, New York.
Bilgrami, K.S. and J.V. Dogra. 1990. Phyto Chemistry and Plant Taxonomy. New Delhi, CBS Publishers .
Cronquist, A. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York.
Davis, P.H. & V.M. Heywood. 1963. Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.
Erdtman, G. 1986. Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy : Angiosperms An Introduction to Palynology. Netherland, E.J.Brill, Leiden.
Groombridge, B. (Ed.) 1992. Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth’s Living Resources. Chapman & Hall. London.
Heywood, V.H. 1967. Plant Taxonomy. Edward Arnold Ltd. Great Britain.
Jain, S.K. & R.R. Rao. 1977. A handbook of Field and Herbarium methods. Today and Tmorrow Printers and Publishers, New Delhi.
Jones, S.B. & A.E. Luchsinger. 1987. Plant Systematics (2nd Ed.) McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York.
Lawrence, G.H.M. 1951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.
Minelli, A. 1993. Biological Systematics : The State of the Art. London, Chapman & Hall.
Naik, V.K. 1984. Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Tata McGraw-Hill publishing Co. Ltd.
Nayar, M.P. “Hot Spots” of Endemic Plants of India, Nepal and Bhutan. TBGRI, Thiruvananthapuram.
Nayar, M.P. & A.R.K. Sastry. 1987-1990. Red Data Book on Indian Plants. Vol. I-III. Botanical Survey of India. Howrah.
Quicke, D.L.J. 1993. Principles and Techniques of Contemporary Taxonomy. Blackie Academic & Professional (An imprint of Chapman & Hall.
Radford, A.E., W.C. Dickinson, J.R. Massey and C.R. Bell. 1974. Vascular Plant Systematics, Harper & Row, New York.
Singh, G. 1999. Plant Systematics – theory and practice. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
Sivarajan, V.V. 1991 (2nd ed.). Introduction to the Principles of Plant Taxonomy. Oxford & IBH publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Stace, C.A. 1989 (2nd ed.). Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. Edward Arnold.
Subramanyam, N.S. 1995. Modern Plant Taxonomy. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
Takhtajan, A. 1981. Flowering Plants : Origin and Dispersal. Dehradun, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh.
Wiley, E.O. 1981. Phylogenetics : The Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic Systematics. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
BOC:04 PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING
1. Nucleic Acid: Structure of nucleotides; Bonding; Double helix and other helices; Repetition Supercoiling; potential for protein interaction; methods of purification and estimation of nucleic acid; Mutability and repair of DNA. (3)
2. Function of DNA and RNA: DNA replication; Enzymes involved in replication; different modes of replication; origin of replication; regulation DNA synthesis.
3. Transcriptions: different RNA (tRNA, mRNA, rRNA); enzymes in transcriptions; Initiations elongation and termination promotors and enhancers; RNA dependent RNA synthesis; Post transcriptional processing of RNA; regulation of protein synthesis. (6)
4. Translations: Ribosomes; genetic code; polypeptide chain; Factors involved in initiation, elongations and terminations; Post translational processing and modification; Transport of protein across the membrance. (5)
5. Restriction and modification of DNA: Basic principle of genetic engineering; restriction enzyme, cutting and joining the DNA; Vectors: plasmids, fine structure of vector gene desirability traits; construction of plasmid, purification of plasmids, various types of plasmids, Bacteriophage and cosmid, single and double standard vectors; Gene transfer to plant. Genetic system provided by E.Coli and its host.
6. Site directed mutagenesis: DNA sequencing, various strategies for carrying out site directed mutagenesis, various cloning strategies, Genome library and cDNA library.
7. Structure and expression of plant genome; general organisation of nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genome; structure and organisation of histone genes, tRNA in plants; Genetic interactions in nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondria; Genetic codes in organelles; Genetics of biogenesis and functioning of chloroplast and mitochondria.
8. Application of plant genetic engineering: Genetic engineering of plants for herbicide resistance, insect resistance, virus and abiotic stress resistance; targeting of protein to chlorophyll and mitochondria; development of fruit and vegetables with longer shelf life; Nif gene; Field testing of transgenic plants; Bio-safety issues in Indian contest; Indian rules, ragulation and procedures for handling transgenic plants. (5)
1. Purification of plasmid DNA. 2. Isolation and purification of plant DNA
3. Digestions of DNA by restriction enzymes and size fractionation of fragment.
4. RNA isolation and purification of mRNA. 5. Southern, northern and western blostting.
6. Transformation of antibiotic resistant trait. 7. PCR cycle. 8. DNA sequencing.
1. David Freifelder. 1987. Molecular Bilogy. Second Edition. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.
2. R. W. Old & S. B. Primerose. Principles of Gene Manipulation. An Introduction to Genetic Engineering.
3. Benjamin Lewin. 1999. GENES VII. Oxford University Press.
4. O’Brien, L. and R. J. Henry. Transgenic cereals. 2000. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.
5. Shaw, C. H. 1988. Plant Molecular Biology-Practical Approach. IRL Press, Oxford, Washington DC.
6. Grierson D and S. Covey. 1984. Plant Molecular Biology. Panima Educational Agency, New Delhi.
7. Gloria Coruzzi 1994. Plant Molecular Biology-Genetic Analysis of Plant Development and Metabolism. Springer-Verlag, New York, London.
8. Tewari, K. K. and G. S. Singhal.1997. Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.
9. Shivanna K. R. and V. K. Sawhney.1997. Pollen Biotechnology for Crop Improvement. Cambridge University Press. London.
BOC-05: ANGIOSPERM INTERNAL MORPHOLOGY AND DEVEOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
1. Origin, growth, differentitation and ultrastructure of cells and tissues; Fine structure of plasmodesmata, microtubules, microfibrils. (2)
2. Cell Walls: Genesis and ultrastructure of cell walls, pits, cell-wall polymers, incrustation and adcrustation of cell walls; symplasm and apoplasm. (2)
3. Apical, lateral, intercalary meristems - their ultrastructure and histochemistry; organogenesis.
4. Ontogeny, phylogeny, evolution, ultrastructure and function of primary and secondary xylem; wood anatomy; bio-deterioration of wood and its prevention. (3)
5. Ontogeny, phylogeny, evolution, ultrastructure and function of primary and secondary phloem. (2)
6. Structural variability in leaves including leaf structure in C3 and C4 plants; leaf histogenesis; leaf meristems; origin, development and utrastructure of trichomes and stomata. (2)
7. Nodal anatomy - nodal types; phylogenetic and evolutionary considerations. (2)
8. Vascular cambium vs cork cambium, factors controlling their activity; periderm; lenticels; abscission; wound healing. (2)
9. Anatomy of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds and fruits; seed appendages - their ontogeny structure and functions. (2)
10. Contemperory plant anatomy - Current trends and prospects (1)
1. A brief historical account on development of our knowledge in embryology. Microsporangium - structure and functions of wall layers; Role of callose and tapetum in pollen development; Microsporogenesis and male gametophyte. (2)
2. Megasporogenesis - profiles of archesporial and megaspore mother cell; Megaspore tetrad, dyad, polarity of nuclei; Determination of functional megaspore. Different types of embryo sacs. (2)
3. Pollination - Ultrastructual and histological details of style and stigma; Self and interspecific incompatibility; Significance of pollen-pistil interaction; Role of pollen wall proteins and stigma surface proteins; Fertilization; Barriers of fertilization; in-vitro pollination. (2)
4. Types of Endosperm, Embryo development in dicots and monocots. A general account of apommixis and polyembryony. Growth and evelopment of seed; Applied aspects of embryology. (2)
1. A brief historical perspective. Pollen wall features; Development and evolution of pollen types; Palynology and Taxonomy. (3)
2. Aeropalynology, methods of aerospora survey and analysis; pollen allergy and pollen calendars. (2)
3. Pollen analysis of honey; honey bee and pollen loads; Role of apiaries in crop production.(2).
4. Palaeopalynology. (2)
5. Recent advances in palynological studies. (1)
1. Study of different ornamentation pattern in pollen grains.
2. Analysis of unifloral and multifloral honey.
3. Collection and identification of local aerospora
4. Study of microsporangium and its details.
5. Study of megasporangium and its details.
6. Types of endosperms and its modifications.
7. Embryo (dicot and monocot) and its modifications.
8. Anatomima of basis of identification C3, C4 plants.
9. Study of stomata and trichomes.
10. Anatomy of wood.
11. Lenticels, periderm.
12. Maceration techniques.
13. Any other Laboratory work based on topics mentioned in theory.
14. Submission of ten permanent micro-preparations (Hand and microtome preparations).
1. Eames A.J. & Mac Daniels L.H. (1947). Introduction to Plant anatomy. McGraw Hill, New York.
2. Esau K. (1985). Plant anatomy, 2nd Edition. Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi.
3. Carlquist S. (1961). Comparative Plant anatomy Holt. Rinehart & Winston, New YOrk.
4. Fahn.A (1990) Plant anataomy, 4th Edition, pergamon press, New York, Oxford.
5. Metcalf C.R. & Chalk L. (1950). anatomy of dicots Vol. I & II. London Press, Oxford.
6. Romberger J.A., Hejnowicz Z. & Hill J.F. 1993. Plant Structure: Function and Development. Springer-Verlag.
7. Bio deterioration of wood and its prevention in Indian coastal waters, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Malleswaram, Bangalore, 1997.
8. Bhojwani S.S. & Bhatnagar S.P. (1984). Embryology of Angiosperms. Vikas Publ. House, New Delhi.
9. Johri B.M. (1984). Comparative embryology of angiosperms. Ind. Nat. Sc. Acad. Johri B.M. (Ed) Ball No. 41. New Delhi.
10. Maheshwari P. (1985). An Introduction to embryology of angiosperms. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
11. Endtman G. (1952). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. Almquist and Wiksell. Stockholm.
12. Erdtman G. (1966). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. Hafner Publishing Co., New York.
13. Nair P.K.K. Essentials of palynology. Asha Publishing House, New York.
14. Nair P.K.K. (1966). Pollen morphology of angiosperms. Periodical expert book agency. New Delhi.
15. Ronald O. Kapp. (1969) . Pollen and Spores. W.M.C. Brown Co., New York.
16. Shivanna, K.R., V.K. Sawhney. 1997. Pollen Biotechnology for crop production and improvement. Cambridge University press. U.K.
BOC-06: PLANT ECOLOGY
Ecosystems: Components, relationship between structure and function; food chain, food webs, trophic levels, trophic structure and ecological pyramids; productivity - primary and secondary.
Aquatic ecosytems: Structure and dynamics of Marine (including coastal, Mangrove and Coral-reef ecosystems), Estuarine, Saltmarsh and Freshwater (lotic and lentic).
Terrestrial ecosystems: Characteristics, distribution and composition of following ecosystems: Sand dunes, Deserts, Savanna and woodlands, Deciduous forests, Tropical rain forests, Tundra, Taiga, Temperate Broad leaved forests.
Representative ecosystems of India: Tropical wet evergreen forests, Tropical dry & moist deciduous forests, Sholas and coastal & mangrove ecosystems of East and West coast. (12)
Community characteristics and structure: Community characteristics; Structure - Climax community: Clement's and Gleason's view of community structure, continuum concept; Physical structure of plant communities - life forms, vertical structure, spatial structure, seasonality and succession.
Community analysis: Community dominance, pattern in communities, ecotone and edge effect; Species diversity - Measurement of species diversity, diversity gradients and factors that cause diversity gradients, models explaining species richness in a community. Concept of keystone and flagship species. (5)
Population characteristics: Density, Natality, Mortality, Immigration and Emigration, Growth, Age distribution.
Population growth: Mathematical theory, Logistic theory; Time-lag models and stochastic models of population growth.
Population regulation: Self-regulation, Key factor analysis and Experimental analysis. (3)
Nature of mathematical models and goals of model building; basic tools in model building, approaches to the development of models. Applications and limitations. (3)
Tropical forests: types, structure, niches, species richness and diversity. (3)
Forest functioning: Plant-plant interaction; ecology of epiphytes; niches in the forests and their utilization by animals; plant-animal interaction in pollination (pollination syndromes- characteristic of bird, bat, beetle and bee-pollinated flowers) and seed dispersal (seed dispersal syndromes- characteristic of bird and mammal dispersal); seed rain and seed bank. (5)
Forest dynamics: Forest tree fall, canopy gaps and forest dynamics. (2)
Nutrient cycling in forests: Soils and their nutrients; nutrient uptake and accumulation in biomass; nutrient return to the system; through fall; litter fall, seasonality and litter decomposition; nutrient conserving mechanisms in forests. (2)
Human impact on forests: Trends and causes for concern; Genetic erosion and resource conservation; Environmental Impact Assessment, Wildlife Act, Forestry law; Biosphere Reserves, National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Reserved Forests; Role of different agencies in conservation of resources. (2)
Afforestation: Need; forestation programmes - Social forestry, Agroforestry, Farm forestry.
1. Determination of the minimum size of the quadrate for grazing land by species-area curve.
2. Determination of the minimum number of quadrates by minimum number method.
3. Determination of the quantitative characters of a plant community by random quadrate
4. Determination of the quantitative characters by belt-transact method in woodland.
5. Preparation of frequency diagram of a plant community.
6. Preparation of a vegetation profile of a forest.
7. Determination of `species diversity' in a plant community by Shannon-Weiner index and Simpson diversity index.
8. Estimation of aboveground biomass in a grazing land employing minimum size of quadrate.
9. Estimation of amount of organic carbon by Kalembasa & Jenkinson (1973) method.
10. Quantitative estimation of dissolved sodium and potassium using flame photometer.
Abrahamson, W.G. 1989. Plant Animal Interactions. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Begon, M., M. Mortimer & M. Mortimer. 1992. Population Ecology : A Unified Study of Animals and Plants. UBS Publishers Distributors Limited. New Delhi.
Chapman, J.L. & M.J. Reiss. 1995. Ecology : Principles and Applications. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Crawley, M.J. 1997 (2nd Ed.). Plant Ecology. Oxford, Blackwell Science Limited.
Krebs, C.J. 1985 ( 3 ed.). Ecology. Harper & Row, Publishers, New York.
Kumar, H.D. 1992. Modern Concepts of Ecology. Vikas Publishing House Private Limited. New Delhi.
Lal, J.B. 1992. Forest Ecology. Dehradun, Natraj Publications.
Odum, E.P. 1971 (3 ed.). Fundamentals of Ecology. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia.
Puri, G.S., R.K. Gupta, V.M. Meher-Homji. 1983-1989.Forest Ecology : 2 Vol. Plant Form, Diversity, Communities and Succession. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company Private Limited. New Delhi.
Whitmore, T.C. 1991. An introduction to Tropical rain forests. Oxford University Press.
BOC-07: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
1. The physico-chemical organisation of the plant cell and cell organelles; structure and composition of plasma membrance fl;uid mosaic lipo-protein model, surface monolayer, confirmation of lipid in micelles and membranes melting transition; movement of water and substances across the membrance. (2)
2. Water relation of plants, unique physico chemical properties of water; bulk movement of water, stomatal regulation of transpirataion, anti transpirants; (1)
3. Inorganic nutrition, macro and micro nutrients, deficiency symptoms, hydroponic studies; meneral absorption and trnslocation and assimilation; Nernst equation and Donnan’s equilibrium. (2)
4. Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrogen nutrition, organic nitrogen, nitrogen fixation in microbes, nitrate and ammonia assimilation: Sulfur metabolism and amino acid synthesis. inter relationship between photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism. (4)
5. Photosynthesis: Importance of photosynthesis, Photosynthesis and environment.
6. Light reaction: Radiant energy, photosynthetic apparatus, pigments and their biosynthesis; light harvesting complex; light absorption and composition and characyteristics of two photosystems, photosynthetic electron transport, water oxidation and its molecular mechanism, photophosphorylation, electron transport in other systems (bacteria). (4)
7. Dark reaction: Carbon dioxide fixation in C3, C4 and CAM plants regulation of PCR cycle; photorespiration and its regulation, environmental factors affecting photosynthesis. (2)
8. Stress physiology: Abiotic and biotic stresses, morphological and cellular adaptation; mechanism of stress tolerance and protection. (4)
9. Respiration: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; cyanide independent respiration; fermentation; cytochrome system; pathways of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; high energy compounds and afctors affecting respiration. (2)
10. Bioenergetics: Chemiosmotic hypothesis and energy transduction; energy transducing organelles mechanism of ATP synthesis, quantitative bioenergetics. (4)
11. 9. Enzymes: Structure and classification; mechanism of action; Michaelis-Menten equation; Lineweaver-Burk plot; enzyme regulation; allosteric enzymes, isozymes, co-enzymes and vitamins; immobilization and application of enzymes in industry. (4)
12. Plant growth substances: Auxin; cytokinin; Gibberellins; ethylene; ABA. polyamines; brassinosteroids their synthesis synthesis, distribution; and physiological effects.Application of hormones in agriculture and horticulture. (4)
13. Phytochromes: regulatory mechanism; role of phytochrome in tropism; physiology of flowering and fruiting. (2)
14. Seed dormancy and germination, senescence, circadian rhythms in plants (exogenous factors and molecular mechanism). (1)
15. Secondary plant metabolities (steroids, alkaloids, tannins, phenols) in higher plants and lower organisms. Allelopathic substances. (2)
PRACTICALS (any 10 ) (14-18)
1.To make molar and normal solution.
2. To determine pka of buffer/amino acids.
3. Verification of Beer's law
4. Quantitative and qualitative estimation of sugars
5. Qualitative and quantitative determination of amino acids
6. Determination of ascorbic acid content of cabbage.
7. Quantitative estimation of protein
8. Separation of protein by PAGE.
9. Pigments extraction, separation and quatitation.
10. Extraction of amylase and determination of Km and Vmax.
11. Enzyme activity with respect to temperature, pH and substrate concentration.
12. Estimation of total nitrogen from plant tissue
13. Analysis of plant tissue for water, organic and inorganic content and determination of a few macronutrient by AAS/FF.
14. Effect of inorganic nutrients on plant growth
15. Isolation of chloroplasts and mitochondria.
16. Assay of photosynthetic electron transport activity from isolated chloroplast.
17. Assay of respiratory electron transport activity from isolated mitochondria.
18. Estimation of nitrate/nitrite reductase activity in leaves.
19. Determination of water potential and osmotic potential in plant tissue.
20. Calcium and signal transduction: Cytoplasmic streaming in chara cells.
BOC-08: CYTOGENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING
1. Physical basis of Heredity: Cell cycle milosis & meloses and their significance.Special type of Chromosomes (Lampbrush, Salivary gland and B-chromosomes; Prokaryotic nucleoids; Chromosome banding and techniques of chromosome banding, Fluorochromes.(4)
2. Maternal effects and cytoplasmic inheritance: Maternal effects; cytoplasmic inheritance involving dispensable hereditary units; male sterility in plants organellar geneticsChloroplast and mitochondria). (4)
3. Plasmids, IS elements, transposons and Retroelements: plasmids, Insertion sequence or IS elements; Transposons and controlling elements (in prokaryotes and Eukaryotes - copia, FB, P and I in Drosophila; Ty in yeast; Tam 1 in snapdragon dotted, AC-DC and Spm in corn; Retroelement (viral and non viral); Mechanism of transposition, uses of transposons. Evolutionary significance. (4)
4. Domestication, Plant introduction and acclimatization: Pattern of evolution in crop plants; Plant introduction; Germplasm collections; Purpose of plant introduction; Some important achievements of plant introduction; Acclimatization. (6)
5. Heterosis and inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression; Effects of inbreeding; Degrees of inbreeding depression; Homozygous and Heterozygous balance; Heterosis in cross and self-pollinated plants; Genetic basis of heterosis and inbreeding depression; Dominance hypothesis; Over-dominance hypothesis;Physiological basis of heterosis; Commercial applications. (6)
6. Distance hybridization and in-vitro techniques in plant breeding: Barriers to production of distant hybrids; interspecific and intergeneric hybridization and their application in crop improvement; embryo culture; Meristem; anther and pollen culture, achievements and future prospects; release of new varieties. (4)
7. Genetics and crossing techniques of some economically important crop plants ciz. Wheat, Rice, Maize and Cotton. (6)
1.Mitotic studies in Allium cepa.
2. Preparation of metaphase plate and camera lucida drawing in Allium cepa.
3.Karyotype analysis, drawing of idiogram and derivation of karyotypic formula in Allium cepa.
4. Meiotic studies in Rheo bicolor.
5. Centre of origin of some economically important crop plants.
6 Floral biology of some economically important crop plants.
7. Effect of chemical mutagen on growth and yield characteristics Brassica sp.
8. Crossing technique in Oryza sativa; Zea mays.
9. in vitro study of anther and pollen culture technique.
10. Induction of polyploidy in Ageratum conyzoides.
11. Cytological abnormalities due to chemical mutation.
12. Crossing techniques in Zea mays.
1. Ahluwalia K.B. (1985). Genetics. Wiley Eastern Ltd.
2. Berns M.W. (1986) Cells. Saunders College Publishing.
3. Burns G.W. & Bottino P.J. (1983). The Science of Genetics. Maxwell Mac Millan International.
4. Chaudhari H.K.(1984). Elementary principles of plant breeding. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company.
5. Dyansagar V.R. (1986). Cytology & Genetics. Tata Mc Graw- Hill Publishing Co.
6. Doods J.H. (1985) Plant Genetic Engineering. Cambridge University Press.
7. Poehlman J.M. & Borthakur D. (1969), Breeding Asian field crops.Oxford & IBM Pub. Company.
8. Sharma A. (1990). Chromosomes. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company.
9. Singh B.D. (1986). Plant Breeding. Kalyani Publishers.
10. Swanson C.P. Merz T & Young W.J. (1990). Cytogenetics. Prentice Hall of India.
11. Swanson C.P. & Webster P.L. (1989). The Cell. Printice Hall of India.
12. Sinha, U. & Sinha U. (1976) Cytogenetics, Plant Breeding and Evolution. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
13. Ganguly, A.K. & Kumar, N.C. (1991) an Introduction to cytology Genetics; Evolution & Plant Breeding. Em Kay Publications.
14. Chopra, V.L. (1989). Plant Breeding. Oxford Publications.
SYLLABUS OF OPTIONAL PAPERS
BOO-1: BOTANICAL TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTATION (48-50 hrs.)
1. Laboratory practices and safety in laboratory: General safety measure, Chemical hazards, Physical hazards, Biological hazards, spillage and waste disposal, disposal of radio active waste, first aid.
2. pH and buffer solutions: SI units; Molarity and moles; Acids and base; Hydrogen ion concentration and pH, Dissociation of acids and bases; Buffer solutions.
3. Chromatography Techniques: General Principles and techniques, principle, application and material of column chromatography; Thin layer chromatography; Paper chromatography; Adsorption chromatography; Partition chromatography; (liquid-liquid chromatography); Gas-liquid chromatography; Ion exchange chromatography; Exclusion chromatography; Affinity chromatography; High performance liquid chromatography.
4. Electrophoresis Techniques: General principles; Principle, material and application of Isoelectric focusing, SDS - PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate); Isotachophoresis; Low and high voltage electrophoresis; Preparative Electrophoresis; Detection, recovery and estimation.
5. Spectroscopic Techniques; General principles; Radiation energy and atomic structure; Basic law of light absorption; Types of spectra and their biological usefulness. Principle, application and instrumentation of UV-VIS spectrophotometry; IR (infra-red) spectrophotometry; CD (circular dichoresim) spectrophotometry; Spectrofluorometry; Luminometry; Atomic/flame spectrophotometry; Mass spectrometry; ESR (electron spin resonance) and NMR (nuclear spin resonance).
6. Microscopy: Light matter interaction and its significance; Kohler illumination; Refraction, reflection, absorption, transmission, fluorescence, polarization, diffraction, Scanning and Transmission Electron microscopy, numerical aperture; depth of field and field of view; Video microscopy; Photomicrography: Resolution, illumination, optical system, cameras, films, focusing, exposure, photographic process, keeping and storing records.
7. Radiobiology: The nature of radioactivity; Atomic structure, stability and radiation; Isotopes; Types of radioactive decay; Detection and measurement of radioactivity; Geigermuller counter; Scintillation counter; Applications of radioisotopes in biological sciences; Safety aspects of use of radioisotopes.
8. Centrifugation Techniques: Basic principles of sedimentation; Centrifuge and their use; Small bench centrifuge; High speed refrigerated centrifuge; Continues flow centrifuge; Preparative ultracentrifuges; Analytical ultracentrifuges; Density gradient centrifugation; Preparative centrifugation; Design and care of rotors, safety aspects in the use of centrifuges.
9. Electrochemical Techniques; Principles and range of electrochemical techniques; pH electrode; Ion selective electrode; Oxygen electrode; Biosensors; Electrochemical detectors.
10. Microtomy and staining procedures
BOO-2: APPLIED PHYCOLOGY: UTILIZATION AND MANAGEMENT (48-50 hrs)
1. ALGAE FOR FOOD AND FOOD SUPPLEMENTS:
a). Porphyra as food: Cultivation and economics: Food and other uses, development of cultivation methods, present and future trends.
b). Cultivated edible kelps: Edible products, kelp composition,kelp production methods, world production
c). Food and food products from seaweeds.
d). Spirulina as human food: Nutritional aspects. Economic and environmental aspects. Theraupetic applications, Harvesting wild populations, village scale production.
e). Some public health aspects of microalgal products. Pheophorbide, Microbial contamination, Extraneous materials, metals, organic compounds, Maintaining sanitary quality.
2. ALGAE: IN INDUSTRY, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND AGRICULTURE:
3. Commercial production and application of algae: Hydrocoloids History, Chemistry production and Application, future aspects of ginatesCarrageenans, Agars.
4. Lipids and polyols from microalgae History of microalgal lipid production research, Triacylglycerots, Hydrocarban, algal solar energy conversion, carotenoids Polyols.
5. Microalgae in liquid waste treatment and reclamation. Biological waste treatment system, Design consideration (Algal concentration, algal productivity) Operation of integrated algal bacterial system, current application, future application (Sewage grown algae, energy system, toxin removal, integrated feedlots).
6. Hydrogen production by algae: water splitting Role of algae in hydrogen production, principles of photosynthetic hydrogen production, Biophotolysis of water.
7. Products from fossil algal: Diatomite-industrial mineral, Calcareous algae, Algal organics and Biostratography: algal kerogen in petroleum and coal, Biosstratiography.f). Algae & Agriculture: Free living cyanobacteria and algalization, Azolla, Microalgal soil conditioners, Microalgal plant growth regulation, Seaweed use in agriculture and horticulture
3. ADVERSE IMPACTS OF ALGAE
a. Marine dinoflagellates blooms: dynamics and impacts: Bloom dynamics: Initiation, growth, Maintenance, Termination, Ecological and Economic impacts: Negative & Positive impacts.
b. Hazards of freshwater blue green algae (cyanobacteria) Neurotoxins, Hepatotoxins, other toxins, Medicinal aspects; Human poisoning, contact dermititis
c. Marine biofouling: Bacterial, Microalgal & Macroalgal biofouling, control treatments; antifouling coatings. Recent improvements in chemical control Methodology, Biological control, Non-adhesive surfaces.
4. FUTURE OF ALGAE WITH MANKIND
1. Algae in space: Algae and life support systems; Algae and planetarybiology, Future of algae in space. B. Genetic improvement: Progress and Prospects: Classical plant breeding, Molecular genetics; characterisation of organelles DNA, Tissue cells and protoplasts.
1. Dawson E.Y. 1966 Marine Botany.
2. Lobban C.S. 1985. The Physiological ecology of Seaweeds.
3. Lewin K.W.J.C. 1962. Physiology and Biochemistry of Algae.
4. Lembi C.A. 1988. Algae and human affairs.
5. Related Research Articles.
BOO3: APPLIED MYCOLOGY: TECHNIQUES, TAXONOMY AND UTILIZATION (48-50 hrs.)
1. Techniques in Mycology:-
The fungal dimension of global biodiversity; the characteristics of diverse fungal habitats; fungi in terrestrial, marine and freshwater habitats; fungi in the tropical ecosystems; fungi in extreme environment. Role of fungi in the ecosystem functioning and fungi as bio-indicators of pollution.
Techniques in fungal ecology and taxonomy; sampling, collection, isolation and maximum recovery of fungi from different habitats; baiting, moist-chamber and particle plating techniques; formulation, composition and characteristics of different fungal media; isolation, maintenance and preservation of pure cultures of fungi; fungal taxonomy and nomenclature; biological studies, effect of pH, temp., light and humidity, fungal growth in liquid media; batch, continuous and phased culture & their application in industry. (10)
2. Systematics and physiology of Fungi:
Fungal systematics; identification techniques; Nomenclature, taxonomy and classification; numerical and computer taxonomy; Chemo- and molecular taxonomy; molecular markers, fungal isozymes; the fungal holomorph; fungal cultural characters on solid and in liquid media; fungal morphotypes and their microscopic and enzymological characterisation; fungal gene banks; culture collections and mycological databases. (8)
3. Economic uses of fungi.
Production and utilization of fungal biomass; fungi as food and feeds; Industrial fungal strains, principles of fermenter design and operation; Bakers and industrial yeast; Edible fungi; Myco-proteins.
Advancement in mushroom cultivation technology; Commercial mushroom species and their strain improvement and cultivation; Edible tropical mushrooms and their cultivation; mushroom spawns; nutritional aspects of mushroom. (8)
4. Industrial uses of fungi.
Fungal constituents and metabolites and their industrial utilisation; useful fungal polysacharides and enzymes; fungal secondary metabolism; classification of fungal metabolites; fungal quinones, hormones, steroids, mycotoxins; lichen chemicals.
Bioactive compounds from fungi and their industrial potential; fermentation technology for antibiotics; production of organic acid; current trends in fungal biotechnology. (8)
5. Fungi as pathogens:
Fungi in phyllosphere and phylloplane; Post-harvest diseases of perishable and durable produces; market pathology and management; Diseases of nurseries and forest trees; diseases of agro- and farm forestry; fungi as biodeteriorating agents in tropics; economic losses due to fungal decomposition; nematode-trappers; fungi as human and animal pathogens; fungicides and their action. (8)
6. Fungi in agriculture:
Endophytic, rhizosphere and soil fungi; Mycorrhizae; Ecto and endomycorrhizae; isolation and culturing; Biofertilizers; Application in agriculture and forestry; Soil-born pathogens; Fungal biopesticides. (6)
BOO-4: PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY (48-50 hrs.)
1. Plant Tissue Culture: A brief history of plant tissue culture; chronology of important developments in plant tissue culture; General Techniques; Laboratory Organisation; Media Composition and Preparation, Aseptic Manipulation; Cell Cultures (including Bergmann's plating technique); Application of cell culture (Mutant selection, production of secondary metabolites, transformations).
2. Micropropagation and somaclonal variation: Clonal propagation or micropropagation; Mechanism of somaclonal variation, Role of somaclonal variation in plant breeedig; Applications.
3. Germplasm conservation and cryopreservation : Modes of Conservation; Cryopreservation of plant cell cultures and its prospects in agricultural and forest biotechnology.
4. Production and uses of Haploids: Production of haploids (anther culture, ovule culture, bulbosum technique), detection of haploids (morphology, genetic markers); uses of haploids; Pollen as a tool in crop improvement; Pollen storage; Effect of radiation on pollen.
5. Protoplast culture, regeneration and somatic hybridization:Isolation of protoplasts, Purification of protoplasts, viability and plating density of protoplast; protoplast culture and regeneration of plants; protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization, Cytoplasmic hybrids or cybrids, genetic modification of protoplasts.
6. Transgenic Plants:Transgenic plants for crop important; transgenic plant for molecular farming; transgenic plants to study regulated gene expression.
7. Gene transfer methods in plants:Target cells for transformation, vector for gene transfer. Gene transfer method using Agrobacterium; selectable and scorable markers (reporter genes), agroinfection and gene transfer, DNA mediated gene transfer (DMGT)
BOE-5: REMOTE SENSING: TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS (48-50 hrs.)
INTRODUCTION TO REMOTE SENSING
Principles and basic concepts of Remote Sensing. Physics of Remote Sensing. Optical versus microwave remote sensing. Effects of Atmosphere; spectral oceanic features in different wavelength regions of EMR. History of space imaging - Characteristics of space platforms: LANDSAT, SPOT, IRS, SEASAT, ERS, MOS, RADARSAT; characteristics of sensors: MSS, TM, LISS I & II, SPOT, CZCS, NOASS-AVHRR. Techniques of digital interpretation. Principles and advantages of Multispectral data analysis.
Basic principles of Thermal and microwave Remote sensing. Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Image Rectification, Enhancement and Mosaicing. Geographic Information System (GIS).
Application of Remote Sensing - specific case studies with examples.
APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING IN BOTANY AND FORESTRY
Principles of Air Photo interpretation in forestry and ecology. Identification, mapping and measurement of vegetation types. Principles of Multispectral Sensing for Vegetation Mapping. Spectral response of Vegetation and factors affecting the spectral response. Tree species identification and Forest type stratification.
Principles of Remote sensing in structural and functional analysis of vegetation. Ecosystem analysis, Environmental Impact Analysis and Monitoring. Change detection and monitoring.
Estimation and measurement of tree and stand height, crown diameter, crown count, crown density, volume and area. Quantitative estimation of biomass and other ecological parameters.
Principles of Remote sensing in Land use/Land cover Mapping and Agriculture. Preparation of base maps and transfer of interpreted data on base maps. Ground data collection and sampling techniques. Forest inventory data.
Land evaluation for Forestry. Forest Resource Management.
1. Stereo test and study of different types of aerial photos.
2. Tracing details from stereopairs.
3. Visual interpretation of various Satellite data products on different scales.
4. Spectroradiometer observations to measure reflectance characteristics.
Botany and Forestry
1. Identification of tree species on aerial photographs and satellite data.
2. Forest cover type stratification and delineation on aerial photographs and satellite data.
3. Interpretation of multispectral data with additive colour viewer.
4. Estimation and evaluation of crown density (crown closure) on aerial photographs by (a) comparison, (b) sampling and (c) occular estimation.
5. Measurement of tree height and crown diameter on aerial photographs.
1. Physical principles of Remote Sensing - Rees, W.G. Cambride University press, Cambridge, 1990.
2. Remote Sensing Optics and Optical systems - Slater P. N. Addision - Wesley Publishing Co. 1980.
3. Remote Sensing and Interpretation - Lillesand T. M. and Kiefer R. W. - II Edition, John Wiley and Sons-1987.
4. Remote Sensing Principles and Interpretation - Floyd and F. Sabnis, JR : II Edition, W. H. Freeman and Co., N. Yor 1987.
5. Theory and Application of Optical Remote Sensing. Astar G. John Wiley and Sons, 1989.
6. Remote Sensing methods and applications : I lord R. Michel. John Wiley & Sons.
7. Advance Remote Sensing from Theory to Applications: Vol I, II & III: F. T. Ulaby.
8. Sharma, M.K. Remote Sensing and Forest Surveys. International Book Distributors, Dehradun, 1986.
9. Barrett, E.C. Introduction to environmental Remote Sensing, Chapman & Hall, 1982.
10. Hush, Betram; Forest Mensuration, John Wiley & Sons, 1982.
11. Steven M. D; clark J. A. Applications of Remote Sensing in Agriculture; Bulterqorths, Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent TN15PH, UK, 1990.
12. Deepak, Adarsh. Applications of Remote Sensing for rice production. A Deepak publishing, 1984.
BOO-6: PLANT - ANIMAL INTERACTIONS (48-50 hrs.)
1. Types of Plant-Animal interactions: Mutualism, Antagonism, Commensalism, Competetion, Multi-trophic level interactions; Evolution of interactions; principle of allocation.
2. Pollination Biology: Importance of cross pollination. Special differentiation associated with pollinator attraction - advertisement and reward (pollen. Nectar, elaiophores, resin glands, osmophores, optical displays and visual clues). Floral adaptation to different pollinators; insect visitors (Hymenoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Thysanoptera), birds, bats, non-flying animals. Sapromyiophily, brrod-site pollination. Pollination biology and gene flow: foraging theory, foraging strategies and time-niche strategies.
3. Fruits, Seeds and Dispersal agents: Fruit chemistry (chemical compartmentalization - pulp and seed, nutritional aspect of pulp, palatability inhibitors and toxins). Seed coat, seed toxins. Phenology; signals, fruit size and fruit production. Dispersers: range of seed dispersers, frugivores as foragers. Seed shadow; seed predators.
4. Herbivores and green plants: Nutritional considerations; herbivore efficiency and ecosystem dynamics; ecological effects of herbivores on plant populations and communities. Co-evolutionary arms race - plant defence and animal response.
5. Ant-plant interactions: The varieties of ant-plant symbioses. Mutualism and non-mutualism (herbivores, harvesting ants, granivores). Effects of harvesters on vegetation. Fungus growers.
6. Carnivorous plants: Mechanisms of interaction between carnivorous plants and animals, trap mechanisms; nutritional benefits of carnivory, cost-benefit analysis. Evolutionary pathways to carnivory.
7. Hormonal interaction between plants and animals; animal pheromones and defence substances.
8. Plant communities as animal habitats: Adaptations, ecological segregation within and between habitats; mechanisms of habitat selection, habitat selection theory, characterestics of plant resources and animal population dynamics, effects of plants on animal spacing and aggression. Animal diversity in relation to plant resource characteristics.
9. Plant-animal interactions in agricultural ecosystems.
Abrahamson, W.G. (ed.), 1989. Plant-animal interactions. McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY.
Crawley, M.J. 1986. Plant Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Endress,P.K.1994.Diversityand Evolutionary biology of tropical flowers. Cambridge University Press.
Harborne, J.B. 1988. Introduction to ecological biochemistry. Academic press.
Holldobler, B. & Wilson, E.O. 1990. The Ants. Springer-Verlag.
Lloyd, D.G. & Barret, S.C.H., 1996. Floral Biology: studies on Floral evolution in Animal pollinated plants. Chapman & Hall.
Proctor, M., Yeo, P. & Lack, A. 1996. The Natural History of Pollination. Harper Collins Publishers.
Richards, A.J. 1986. Plant Breeding systems. George Allen & Unwin, London.
Smith, R.L. 1990. Ecology and field biology. Harper Collins publishers.
Van der Pijl, L. 1969. Principles of dispersal in Higher plants. Springer-Verlag.
Whitmore, T.C. 1990. An introduction to tropical rain forests. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
BOO-7: PHOTOSYNTHESIS, BIOPRODUCTIVITY AND POST HARVEST
TECHNOLOGY (48-50 hrs.)
Photosynthesis and Bioproductivity:
Plant growth analysis: Basic principles and classical growth analysis
Plant microclimate: Radiation, temperature, humidity, wind, plant water and soil status, canopy structure, shoot morphology and leaf anatomy and productivity.
Measurement of carbon dioxide assimilation by plants in the field and laboratory; Infra-red gas analysis, 14C incorporation etc.
Measurement of oxygen evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence; measurements of oxygen evolution for studying electron transport in isolated chloroplasts and mitochondria and other photoautotrophic. Chloraophyll fluorescence measurement and its interpretation.
Carbon metabolism: Assay of some enzymes of carbon reduction cycle.
Nitrogen metabolism: Measurement of nitrogen fixation by direct means and indirect assay of nitrogenase activity, assimilatory nitrogen reduction and determination of enzymatic activities, Ammonia assimilation.
Algae: Laboratory techniques and out door biomass production.
Measurement of PLANT biomass and net primary production: Sampling; Design; measuring of above ground and below ground biomass; non-destructive measurement of biomass, estimation of stem and leaf dimension and remote sensing.
Post harvest technology:
Post harvest technology (harvesting, collection, storage, transport and product preparation ) in
1. Plantation crop (Coconut),
2. Fruit crop (Mango, Jackfruit and Kokkum),
3. Spices (black pepper, cloves, cardamon, cinnmon, ginger and turmeric),
4. Ornamental and (e) Vegetable plants.
BOO-8: CYTO AND HISTOCHEMISTRY AND ITS APPLICATION IN BIOLOGY - THEORY AND PRACTICE (48-50 hrs.)
1. Introduction to Basis cytology and Histology - Cells and tissues and microorrganisms.
2. General Techniques: The chemistry and practice of fixation; whole mounts; sections- cryo and ultra-microtomy; freeze-drying of biological tissue.
3. Cyto and Histochemistry with bright-field Microscopy; Localization of various biogenic components such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, phenolie compounds, lignins, cutins, suberin, waxes, minerals such as calcium, potassium, irons, other metals and metabolities using optical bbrightness in various biologiccal specimens.
4. Cyto and Histochemistry with Polarized-light Microscopy: Study of structure and components of cell wall using an-isotropic material.
5. Cyto and Histochemistry with Fluorescence Microscopy: Auto-fluorescence in biological material; Flouro chromes; Excitation filters; Localisation of phytins, proteins, lysine rich proteins, lipids, nucleric acids, phenolic compounds, lignins and cutins in various biological tissue using fluorchromes. FITC-bound dextrins and vasacular tissue specific fluorochromes in biology. Study of cell membranes, connective tissues, protoplasts and infected materials.
6. Cyto and Histochemistry with Electron Microscopy; Specimen preparation for TEM and Sem.
7. Enzyme Histochemistry: Esterases; phosphates and other enzymes.
8. Photomicrography: Basic techniques of image capture, record, analysis wit bright filed, polarization, dark-field and fluorescence attachments. Chemistry, exposure time, films and filters. Processing, preparation of slide for presentation, use of computers and image analysis software and Vedio-micrography.. Field and Macro-photography.
9. Cyto and Histochemistry and its Application: Understanding the biology and structure of microorganisms, fungi, algae, medicinal and other economically important plants and animals. Applications of such techniques in diagnostic and analytical sciences and biotechnology.
1. Study of auto-fluorescence in biological specimens using UV, Violet, Green and Blue excitation filters.
2. Understanding of distribution of proteins in biological specimens using fluorescent and non-fluorescent dyes.
3. Localization of lipids in biological specimens using fluorescent and non-fluorescent dyes.
4. Study of cell wall structure using the specific fluorochrome calcufluor white under fluorescence microscopy.
5. Study of distribution of starch in biological specimens.
6. Micro-photography with bright-field, dark-field, polarization and fluorescence microscopy and macro-photography.
7. Study of standard microbiota - gram positive , negative bacteria, fungi, algae, protozon and their cytochemistry.
8. Examination of normal and diseased animal/human tissues.
9. Basic of Image analysis software.
1. Pears, A.G.E.1980. Histochemistry Theoretical and Applied, Preparative and Optical Techniques. Vol. I. Fourth Edition. Churchill Livingstone. London and New York.
2. Pears, A.G.E. 1985. Histochemistry Teoretical and Applied. Analytical Technology. Vol. II Churchill Livingstone. London and New York.
3. Tibor Barka, M.D., Paul, J. Anderson, M.D. 1963. Histochemistry Theory, Practice and Bibiliography. Hoebert Medical division, Harper & Row Publications, New York and London.
4. Krishnamurthy, K.V. 1988, Methods in Plant Histochemistry. S. Viswanthan (Printers & Publishers) PVT. LTD., Chennai.
5. Conn. H.J. 1977. Biological Stains. R. D. Lillie (Ed>) The Williams and Wilkins Co., Reprinted by Sigma Chemical Company, USA.
6. Clark, G. 1981. Staining procedures, Williams and Wilkins,Baltimore.
7. Jensen, W.A. 1962. Botanical Histochemistry Principles and Practice. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.
8. Hayat, M.A. 1986. Basic Techiques for Transmission Electron Microscopy. Academic Press. London and New York.
BOO-9: HORTICULTURE, LANDSCAPING AND GARDENING (50-55 hrs)
1. Horticulture and its relation to agriculture, agronomy and forestry. History and
importance of horticulture in food, medicine, spice, ornamental and trade economy. (3)
1. Plants of horticultural important families of plants as sources of vegetables, fruits and ornamentals. Classification of plants as annuals, biannuels and prennels; herbs, shrubs, vines, climbers, trees and evergreens. (4)
2. Growth and Development: Seed dormancy, viability and germination. Vegetative and reproductive growth of plants. Native and synthetic hormones and other growth regulators, their importance in horticulture, gardening and landscaping. (4)
3. Environment and Plant Growth: Climatic factors and their effects on plant growth and development. Importance of water, temperature and light quality and quantity. Greenhouse and other plant growing-structure. (4)
4. Soils and mineral requirements: Nature and importance of soil, different types of soil. Sterile soil mixtures (vermiculite, perlite etc. Hydrophonics). Different types of organic manure’s and inorganic fertilizers. Importance of macro and micronutritients in plants growth and development. (4)
5. Propagation of plants: Vegetative propagation of stem, leaf and root cuttings. Propagation by division andlayerings, bulbs, corms, tubers and rhizomes, budding and grating. Production of seeds, their certification, storage and germplasm collection. (6)
6. Important vegetables and fruits, their countries of origin cultivation and importance in Indian economy. Nutritive value of vegetables, greens and fruits cultivation of spices and medicinal plants. Cultivation of mushrooms. (5)
7. Pests and Diseases: Viral, mycoplasmic, Bacterial and fungal pathogens and isect and pest of horticultural plants. Biological control and integrated pest management. (4)
8. Gardens and Gardening: Design of gardens for vegetable and fruit-plant cultivation. Flower gardening. Special maethods of ornamental cultures such as hanging baskets, bottle and terrarium gardening, roof, rock and water gardens. Bonsai and topiary. (6)
9. Aesthetics of horticulture: Elements and principles of design and landscape artchitecture formal and informal gardens of the world in general and India in particular. Flower beds, borders, lawns, hedges, edges and topiary. (6)
11. Irrigation: Advanced irrigation system such as drip, microtube and sprinkle systems. (2)
1. A knowledge of tools, techniques and terminologies of horticulture such as rake, hoe, spade, trowel, digger, shoval, pick-axe, mamti, plantlet, budding, staking, mulching, thinaing, proning, and grafting.
2. A knowledge of local claimatic conditions and planting seasons of horticultural plants.
3. Preparation by cutting and layering. Use of auxin for rooting and grafting.
4. Planing and planting a vegetable garden with local seasonal vegetabls. Maintenance of a record of their growth.
5. A knowledge of common vegetables, fruits and flowers of India, and their countries of origin. Wild edible plants of seeds, plants, chemicals and equipment for horticulture.
6. Observation of common diseases and insects pests of horticultural plants around Goa. Knowledge of common herbicides, fungicides and insecticides locally available.
7. Field trips, when possible to places of horticultural gardens and landscaping areas and studios.
8. Hedge plants of Goa.
9. Ornamental flowering plants of Goa.
10. Foliage plants of Goa.
11. Ferns of Goa.
12. Flowers sold in Goa.
13. Vegetables of Goa market and their origin.
14. Botanical garden in Goa.
15. Common wild edible plants around us.
16. Collection and identification of 10 insect pests of horticultural plants.
17. Caning of vegetables and fruits.
18. Any other topic approved by the course teacher.
1. ADAMS, C.R. , K.M. BANFORD AND M.P. EARLY. 1990. Principles of Horticulture, Butternorth Heineman Ltd. London.
2. GORNER, R. 1978. The growth of gardens. Faber and Faber. London
3. GRAF, A.B. 1981. Tropica, 2nd edition, Rohers Co. USA.
4. HARIMAN, H.T. and D.F. KESTLER. 1976. Plant propagation: Principles and practicals.
5. Prentice & Hall of India. New Delhi.
6. KUMAR, N. 1986. Introduction to Horticulture. Rajalakshmi Publication. Nagerkoil,
7. Tamil Nadu.
8. MOORE, R. & W.D. CLARK.1995. Botany: Plant form &function, Vol.1.W.M.C.Brown
10. RANDHAWA and A. MUKHOPADYAY. 1982. Floriculture in India. Allied Pub. Pvt.
11. Ltd. New Delhi.
12. RANJIT, S. 1992. Fruits. 2nd National Book Trust. New Delhi.
13. RAO, K.M. 1991. Text book of Horticulture. MacMillan India Ltd. New Delhi.
14. 10.TORRES, C. K. 1989. Tissue culture techniques for horticulturalcrops. Van Nostrand
15. Reinheld. New York.
16. Commercial Floriculture in Goa. Agricultural Officer’s Association – Goa. 2002.
17. Manual of Gardening. Agricultural Officer’s Association – Goa. 1997.
18. Agribusiness Opportunities in Goa. Agricultural Officer’s Association – Goa. 2000.
19. Kitchen Garden Manual. Agricultural Officer’s Association – Goa. 2000.
BOO-10: SEED TECHNOLOGY (48-50 hrs.)
1. History of seed technology and seed health testing; development of seed technology in India and its importance to agriculture.
2. Seed health testing procedures; Objectives; ISTA rules - perscriptions and recommendations; sampling - type of samples, equipment, intensity and storage; Seed purity- physical purity and analysis, genetic purity and determination (laboratory and growing on tests): seed moisture content & effects, methods to determine moisture content; Seed germination - Viability & germination tests; seedling vigour; salient features of seed health; seed - borne fungi, bacteria, viruse and ematode diseases and their control.
3. Morphology and anatomy of seed. Exomorphic characters, gross internal morphology; structure and development of seed coat in main groups of angiosperms; classification based on seed coat characters, identificaation and structure of seed of important field crops.
4. Seed production: Principles; seed production in self- pollinated, cross-pollinated and vegetratively propagated- crops; Hyploid seed production; maintenance of inbred lines and breeders seeds; germplasm or seed banks; life span of seed varieties and factors responsible for their deterioration; Seed harvesting; Separation, cleaning and upgrading of seeds with informations on the equipments used.
5. Seed storage: Principles & methods of sea seed storage, types of storage structures, factors affecting storage life, effects of storage environments on seed longevity, seed deteriortion in storage and its control :Aflatoxins.
6. Physiology and Biochemistry of seed germination: Seed maturation, food reserve, imbibition, mobilization of food reserves, germination & growth factors affecting germination.
7. Seed dormancy & longevity: Dormancy - Significance, types, causes, control & release of dormancy; longevity ife span at seed, factor affecting longevity, biochemical cytological effects of longevity.
8. Seed certification: definitions, development of seed certification concept, minimum seed certification standards - general & specific crop standards; field nspection, ISTA certificates.
9. The seed Act of India (1966) & seed Rule (1968) with ammendments; Limitation of the act.
10. National seed Programme; National seed corporation; Seed Industry in India agencies responsible for achieving self reliance in production & supply of quantity seed (State farms Co-operation, State seed Cooperations, National seed development Council. Central Seed Committee).
Principles of seed science & technology by copeland, L.O. 1976.
Viability of seeds by Robert.
Principles of angiosperm taxonomy by Davis, P.H. and Heywood, V.H.
Outlines of biochemistry by Conn E.E. & Stimpf P.K.
The physiology & biochemistry of seed development, dormancy and germination by Khan A.A. 1982. 6. The germination of seed by Mayer A and Poljakoff-Mayber A. A. 1982.
Seed by Kozlowski. Vols I & II.